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Full text of "History of the United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, a Negro order organized August 1, 1861 in the city of Louisville, Ky. Containing photos, sketches, and narratives of the lives of its founders and organizers. In two parts"

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Sisters of the Mysterious Ten. 



Organized August 1, 1861, in the City of Louisville, Ky. 






I8 97 . 







[Taken from an old daguerreotype.] 


Before giving a sketch of this history, we shall preface 
it with reasons for performing the task, which will be of 
interest to all of those who wish to learn of its origin, 
and of those persons who were the originators. We be 
lieve that this can be accomplished more to the satisfac 
tion of the impartial reader when written by one who 
has taken an active part in nearly all of its deliberations 
for more than thirty years. For be it known to all 
readers of history that more reliance is placed upon 
those who were present and eye-witnesses to a scene 
than to those who depend on sketches of hearsay and 
from disinterested parties ; often the dates are conflict 
ing and misleading views are given, causing the authen 
ticity of the volume to be in doubt. But the principal 
and greatest reason for this historical sketch should be 
to place before the world the history of a Negro organ 
ization whose growth has been unprecedented, number 
ing its membership by thousands, its secret signs, em 
blems, and outfits of all grades, mostly original. 

Starting out as a local benevolent society, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, 
a few young men, free and slave, being desirous of im 
proving their condition, met in a private residence in 
the city of Louisville, Kentucky, and there organized 



the benevolent society known as the United Brothers 
of Friendship. The society grew rapidly and many were 
added to its membership. Just at this time the Civil 
War had begun. They had hardly been organized two 
years before the negro was called to take up arms in 
defense of his country by the immortal Abraham Lin 
coln. "To Arms! To Arms!" was the cry many of 
its members responded to the call the membership was 
diminished, but enough remained to keep the society in 
existence until the close of the war, when a new epoch 
was begun. 

And here let me say, while we have no discussion in 
our ranks about our legality as an order, or from whom 
we obtained our charter, or of our right to assemble in 
State or National Grand bodies on account of our color, 
we affirm that none of these questions disturb us, for we 
have accepted the badge of distinction, and therefore 
are not elbowing our way into any white organization ; 
we claim to be purely Negroes and of Negro origin. 

But there is one question upon which we have had 
some discussion, and we propose to settle it in this sketch 
in a plain and impartial manner: The question in regard 
to who were the original organizers and the fathers of 
the Order as it is generally applied. This, to our mind, 
is an important question, and ought to be answered 
truthfully, and let it be known to the present and future 
generations who were the fathers of the Great Negro 

By way of illustration, it is said that Columbus dis 
covered America, but he was not called the father of 


his country because of discovery. It is just now at a 
period of four hundred years that his right of discovery 
has been acknowledged by the civilized world. Wash 
ington, the father of his country, acquired the title from 
the victories achieved over the enemies of the country, 
thereby making it possible for a State and National 
Government, with a constitution acknowledging the 
freedom and equality of mankind. For these things he 
was called by those who loved him and was with him 
in the struggle for freedom, The father of his country. 

In every department of life, where genius, science, 
and other great achievements are obtained, there are 
those who are ready to dispute with others their right 
to their own inventive genius, and were it not for the 
patent laws of our country the labor and time spent 
and the royalty due them would be lost to the proper 
and legal inventors. 

Our object shall be to divide this history into tw6 
epochs. The first giving the names of those organiz 
ing the benevolent society, and secondly of those who 
gave it a State and National existence a grand and 
noble secret order, composed of male and female mem 
bers. We shall not detract from those names who ap 
pear conspicuous in the organization of the first epoch 
of benevolence, but shall endeavor to give them credit 
for the noble work performed up to the second epoch. 
At the same time we shall give credit to those of the 
second epoch who organized a secret order, laid the 
foundation for statehood and National confederation, 
which has been successfully administered by the various 


State and National officers. There should be no need 
for jealousies and bickerings, for there are but few in 
the ranks that were in it thirty-six years ago ; hence the 
old men have passed away, the young men become 
their successors, and what few are left should be re 
vered by the younger men, their deeds should be 
forever remembered, and in death they should be ten 
derly deposited in the tomb to await the resurrection 

It is the pride of the Anglo-Saxon race to repeat and 
commemorate the deeds of their fathers their biogra 
phies are published that the world may know that such 
individuals lived and benefited mankind. We are grati 
fied when we read the history of several Negro orders 
and find them presenting the names of their founders 
and the good deeds they have accomplished for hu 

We know that the Order of the United Brothers of 
Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten will join 
heartily in giving credit and honor to whom honor is 




Organized August 1, 1861. 



By the combined efforts of Marshall Taylor, Wm. N. 
Hazelton, Charles B. Morgan, Charles Coats, Wm. Law- 
son, Wm. Anderson, Wallace Jones, Ben Carter, and others, 
the Benevolent Society of the United Brothers of Friendship 
was organized, in the city of Louisville, Ky. Its aim and 
object is set forth in the following preamble: 

"We invite you, one and all, that are friends of human 
ity you that wish to advance Benevolence and Christian 
ity to come and unite with us in our effort to create a 
system of harmony and friendship; not the empty title of 
friends, but of friends in need and friends in deed, for 
with the help of God we never intend to cease our efforts in 
this good cause until death intervenes or our great object of 
Friendship is accomplished." 

The society grew rapidly among the young men for two 
years, though it came into existence coeval with the "Re 
bellion " of the Southern States against the Government of 
the United States. Here their progress was interrupted by 


a call to arms. There were many patriotic hearts beating 
for freedom, and from this society a large number responded 
by enlisting in the United States Army. The ranks of the 
society were depleted by this call and enlistment, but a rem 
nant was left to perpetuate the United Brothers of Friend 

The regular order of business was conducted by those 
officers who remained, the sick were ministered to, the dead 
were buried, and correspondence was kept up with the sol 
dier, boys. 

The war was closed in 1865, "Peace was declared" many 
returned home, others paid for our liberties with their blood, 
their bodies remaining on the battle-fields and filling a soldier s 
grave; others located in different States and Territories and 
never returned. The return of the soldier boys was a joyful 
meeting; receptions and barbecues; their mothers, wives, 
and families vied with each other in the Grand Jubilee. 

At the stated meetings of the society many renewed their 
membership, but things had changed; the organization began 
with free and slave members, now all were free men. After 
consultation it was found necessary to inaugurate a new sys 
tem of management. There were some complications that 
required mature consideration. At this juncture a leader 
was wanted. Marshall Taylor, George Taylor, Asbury Tay 
lor, Charles Coats, Wm. Anderson. Wallace Jones, Wm. N. 
Hazelton, and Ben Carter were pupils of W. H. Gibson, 
Sr. He taught day and night school at Quinn Chapel (A. 
M. E. Church). These young men, who were members of 
this society, prevailed on Bro. Gibson to join them, as he 
had more experience in society work than any of them. 
Finally he accepted the invitation and became a member. 
He was made Secretary. All the books and papers were 


turned over to him for adjustment. For three weeks or more 
he was engaged in this work, for the books were considerably 
out of balance, there being a large amount of back dues and 
a number of promissory notes uncollected. He recommended 
that the features of the Order be changed, and that it be 
chartered by the Legislature. He wrote the charter himself, 
stating about what they wanted. The brethren appointed a 
committee, a lawyer revised, prepared, and presented it to 
the Legislature, and a charter was granted February 7, 1868. 



SECTION i. That William W. Jones, William H. Lawson, 
William N. Hazelton, Charles Coats, and William Ander 
son, and their associates, be, and they are hereby created, a 
body politic and corporate, by the name and style of the 
Grand Lodge of the United Brothers of Friendship, of the 
State of Kentucky; and they, with their associates and suc 
cessors, shall so continue, and have perpetual succession ; 
and by that name are hereby made capable in law, as natural 
persons, to sue and be sued, to plead and be impleaded, to 
contract and be contracted with, to answer and be answered 
in all courts of law and equity in this Commonwealth and 
elsewhere ; to make, have, and use a common seal, and the 
same to break, alter, or amend at pleasure. They may make 
and ordain such regulations and by-laws, for their govern 
ment, as from time to time they may deem proper, and may 
change and renew the same at pleasure ; Provided, they be 
not in contravention of the Constitution of the United States 
or of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. 

SEC. 2. Said corporation shall have the right to purchase 
and hold a suitable lot or lots in the city of Louisville, or 
elsewhere in this Commonwealth ; to erect such buildings as 
may be wanted for the use of the Grand Lodge and such 
subordinate lodges of the United Brothers of Friendship as 


are now in existence, or may be hereafter created in said city 
or elsewhere in the limits of said Commonwealth. 

SEC. 3. Said corporation shall have power to raise money, 
by subscription or borrowing, to any amount not exceeding 
thirty thousand dollars, and lay the same out as specified in 
section two. 

SEC. 4. Said corporation shall have power to sell or other 
wise dispose of the ground acquired by virtue of this act, or 
any portion thereof, provided they deem the same neces 

SEC. 5. Within thirty days after the passage of this act, 
the corporators herein named, or a majority of them, shall 
call a meeting, at a convenient time and place, in the city of 
Louisville, and give due notice thereof to the residue, and 
at such meeting shall adopt such permanent regulations as 
the majority may deem proper. 

SEC. 6. Said Grand Lodge shall not have or execute any 
power or privilege not herein expressly granted ; and the 
Legislature reserves the right to amend, modify, or repeal 
this act; but the repeal shall not dispossess the said Grand 
Lodge of the property and effects acquired and held under 
this charter. 

SEC. 7. Each and every subordinate lodge of the United 
Brothers of Friendship now organized, or which may here 
after be organized, under the jurisdiction of the Grand 
Lodge, shall be a body politic and corporate, by the name 
and style stated in the charter granted to them by the said 
Grand Lodge, and shall be vested by all the powers and 
privileges given by this act to the said Grand Lodge, not in 
consistent with said charter, and subject to like limitations 
and restriction, so long as they continue to hold a regular 
and unforfeited charter from said Grand Lodge. 

SEC. 8. It shall be the duty of the corporators herein 
named, and their associates, to appoint a Board of Managers, 
consisting of five members of the Grand Lodge, whose duty 
it shall be to take charge of the fiscal concerns of said cor 
poration, a majority of whom shall constitute a quorum to do 

Approved February 7, 1868. 


The charter having been obtained, it was necessary to 
organize lodges under it, Bro. Gibson being authorized to 
correspond with societies and individuals for that purpose. 
It will be noticed that it was three years before the charter 
was operative, but during the interval correspondence was 
opened with parties desirous of being organized under it, 
and favorable responses received. 

The name "United Brothers of Friendship" was adopted 
by the Benevolent Society of Louisville, Ky. It may be 
proper here to state that many societies and organizations 
in this and in other States were known by this name, or a 
portion of it, at least. Some were called the Friendship 
Benevolent, some Friendship Brothers, others United Broth 
ers, United Fellows, Church of the United Brothers, etc., 
but none of them had any connection whatever with the 
United Brothers of Friendship. Whenever we heard of a 
society by this name we opened up correspondence, and 
also with societies of different names, proposing to them a 
united body under this charter. Our efforts were crowned 
with success at the expiration of three years, and we were 
enabled to call a State convention and organize a State Grand 
Lodge April 10, 1871. 

With this correspondence closed the first epoch with a 
grand future looming up before us the inauguration of an 
incorporate body the foundation of a State and National 
confederation of lodges, instead of a local society the uni 
fication of a grand and noble order of Negro representatives, 
hailing from every section of this nation. 


MARSHALL TAYLOR was born a slave in Lexington, Ky. 
There were three brothers, Marshall, George, and Asbury. 


They attended my school, and were studious and naturally 
given to literary pursuits. Marshall attached himself to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in his early youth. He studied 
for the ministry, and became a prominent minister in that 
denomination. His brother, George, was quite a society man 
also, his labor being devoted to the Masonic fraternity, and 
by his zeal and proficiency he passed through all the degrees, 
was elected Grand Master of the State of Kentucky, served 
as Grand Commander of the Sir Knights, and also a mem 
ber of the Consistory. Asbury was rather eccentric, but of a 
religious frame of mind. He was of the Evangelist view, 
and was not particularly connected with any denomination. 
He traveled extensively through the North and the Canadas, 
preaching, lecturing, writing, and composing hymns and 
poems. He is yet alive. Marshall was offered for the office 
of Bishop at the General Conference that met in Cincinnati, 
()., 1 8 , but he was defeated, the white brethren refusing 
to vote for a colored Bishop, deeming it unnecessary in their 
connection at this time. He was elected, at that conference, 
editor of the Southwestern Advocate, printed at New Or 
leans. The paper was very ably edited by him for several 
years, until his health failed, when he removed to Indianap 
olis, and died there in 1889. His remains were brought to 
Louisville for interment. We witnessed his funeral. He had 
no affiliation with the Order, having left it a few years after 
it was organized. I conversed with him after we became a 
National body, and he said that his church relations were so 
urgent that he could not devote his time to the Order, but 
saying that we had his best wishes for its success. George 
died a few years later. He was an Episcopalian, and was 
buried with the honors of Masonry and the funeral rites of 
that church. 


WM. N. HAZELTON was freeborn in Baltimore, Md., 
brought to Kentucky by his uncle, David Wells, and edu 
cated. We were personally acquainted with him. He was 
of a quiet temperament, but very decisive in his dealings 
with his fellow-men ; he was also a Christian, and his chief 
desire was to be doing something; his heart seemed to be 
centered on the society, and how he could best enhance its 
usefulness. He died in 1869, before the charter became 
operative. His funeral was largely attended by the U. B. F. 

CHARLES COATS was born a slave. He was of a peculiar 
temperament. He was what we term a zealous Christian, 
very active and out-spoken in his views on any subject. He 
was a faithful attendant to the sick, and for many years our 
Chaplain. His prayers around the sick bed of the brethren 
were fervent and consoling. He was one of the charter 
members who lived to see the second epoch of the society, 
and participated in the organization of the State Grand 
Lodge under the charter. 

W. H. LAWSON, freeborn, in Maysville, Ky. , is the only 
surviving charter member and organizer. His services to 
the Order have been invaluable. He has figured in all of 
the departments of the Order. He has codified our laws, 
improved our secret work, formulated odes and various 
services, has been the orginator of many signs and emblems, 
and was our chief regalia manufacturer and banner-maker for 
many years. He has lived to fill all the important offices 
in the Order; also served in the army, and has an honor 
able discharge. 

WALLACE JONES was a faithful and zealous member of the 
society. He did not live to see his desires accomplished as 
a charter member. He was afflicted with a lingering disease, 
terminating in death, dying at the residence of his former 


master, on Fourth Avenue. The funeral services were per 
formed on a Sunday afternoon, the society turning out in its 
full strength. A large concourse of people witnessed them. 
WM. ANDERSON was also an active member in the early 
stages of the society, and his name is recorded with the 
charter members ; but he became inactive before the organ 
ization under the charter, and he never returned. He died 
out of our ranks. 




Pursuant to a call, the United Brothers of Friendship 
assembled in Quinn Chapel (A. M. E. Church), April 10, 
1871, at 2 o clock P. M. 

Wm. H. Gibson, Sr. , was elected Chairman, pro tern., 
and H. P. Gains, Secretary, pro tern. 

Prayer by Rev. Greenup Cooper. 

The Committee on Credentials appointed and reported 
the following representatives: Bros. Oliver Chambers, Alex. 
Williams, H. P. Gains, Lexington, Ky. ; Richard Courtney, 
Porter Filly, Simpsonville, Ky. ; W. H. Russell, H. J. 
Graves, Henry Jones, Shelbyville, Ky. ; Wm. H. Gibson, 
Sr., M. J. Davis, J. H. Taylor, Wm. Smith, Charles Coats, 
J. T. Hudson, W. T. Tallefaro, Louisville, Ky. ; N. B. Stone, 
Geo. Russell, Bloomfield, Ky. ; Sandford Thomas, Greenup 
Cooper, New Castle, Ky. ; B. F. Crampton, W. T. Dixon, 
Stradford Straus, Henry Mars, John Bryant, Frankfort, Ky. 

Independent Sons of Honor Moses Yancy, George Buck- 
ner, Jas. Graves, Wm. Dorsey, Wm. Smith. 

United Fellows W. H. Lawson. 

The Committee on Permanent Organization reported the 
following: Wm. H. Gibson, Sr. , President; B. F. Cramp- 
ton, Vice President; H. P. Gains, Secretary; W. T. Tal 
lefaro, Assistant Secretary; T. S. Baxter, Treasurer; Geo. 
F. Buckner, Sergeant-at-arms; W. H. Lawson, Secretary of 


The Convention being organized permanently, the busi 
ness was stated by the Chairman, committees were appointed, 
and the wheels of progress put in motion aside from such 
business incident to such assemblies. The charter was read. 
The articles of agreement were presented by the committee. 

ARTICLE i. Resolved, That all Benevolent Societies form 
ing a union under the Grand Lodge of the United Brothers 
of Friendship shall maintain all the rights originally held by 
them under their subordinate constitutions, except such as 
may be delegated through their representatives. 

ART. 2. Resolved, That an equality of representatives 
shall be granted to all subordinate lodges who may, during 
this convention, or hereafter, sign the articles of agreement 
or confederation. 

ART. 3. Resolved, That each lodge shall sign the Grand 
Lodge Constitution, otherwise they will not be considered as 
forming a part of this union. 

ART. 4. Resolved, That each subordinate lodge will use 
its best exertions towards having our Order introduced in the 
adjacent counties throughout the State. 

ART. 5. Resolved, That these articles of agreement may 
be revised or amended from time to time at the meetings of 
the General Convention. 

These five articles, which comprise chiefly the articles 
of agreement, are the bed rock or foundation of this New 
Epoch, including Article 5 of the Constitution, which reads 
as follows : 

"The powers of this Grand Lodge are vested in the 
charter granted by the Legislature ; with it lies the power to 
enact laws and regulations for the government of the sub 
ordinate lodges, to alter and repeal laws, and hear appeals 
from subordinates and individual brethren when such appeals 
are made to the Grand Lodge ; also to secure and purchase 
property for the benefit of the Order. 


P. G. 1 ., KY. 


SEC. G. L. KY. 


These being duly considered by the Convention they were 
signed and approved by all the lodges represented, except 
two, the Independent Sons of Honor and the United Fel 

With some preliminaries, and the election of officers for 
the ensuing year, the First Convention and organization of 
the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, United Brothers of Friend 
ship, adjourned sine die. 

Resolved to meet in Frankfort, Ky., in 1872. 

The title of the presiding officer was styled Grand Chief. 

The following officers were elected to serve one year : 

Wm. H. Gibson, Sr. , Grand Chief; B. J. Crampton, Vice 
Grand Chief; T. S. Baxter, Grand Secretary; H. P. Gains, 
Assistant Grand Secretary; A. W. Williams, Grand Treas 
urer; J. H. Taylor, Grand Pilot; Chas. Coats, Grand Chap 
lain; O. Chambers, Grand Marshal; M. J. Davis, S. Straus, 
W. H. Russell, W. T. Dixon, Richard Courtney, Grand 


The State Grand Lodge having been organized, our duties 
were of great responsibility. By the suffrage of that body 
we were made the leaders to build up an institution in the 
State which had occupied only a local position. Many visits 
and communications were expected ; special visits and special 
instructions were enjoined upon the Grand Chief (as he was 
then called). We sallied out from Louisville to organize, 
trusting in God, knowing that our cause was a just one. for 
just about that time it was perilous in some parts of the State 
in regard to meetings of our people. It was during the 


reign of " Ku-Kluxism ; " hence we moved carefully about 
the business, as a stranger in a community was spotted by 
the "klan." 

Our annual report will tell with what success. We quote 
the following from the report of 1873 : 

"Brethren This being our second annual meeting, we 
congratulate you on the progress made. We should be 
encouraged. When we formed this lodge, ten lodges were 
represented; at our second meeting, fourteen, and at our 
third, twenty-one. Our increase has been a wholesome one. 
Go on in the good work, and before another year we hope 
that in every county in the State we will have lodges organ 
ized. Letters from the States of Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, 
Iowa, Indiana, and Mississippi have been received, inquiring 
into the workings of our Order, and expressing an earnest 
desire to form a union with us, and if consistent to obtain a 
charter from this body ; but as our charter privileges confine 
us to this State, I have instructed them, and proposed a Na 
tional Convention of United Brothers of Friendship Lodges 
for the purpose of considering these questions pertaining to 
a Grand Union of all the Lodges." 

This subject I would most especially and respectfully 
recommend for your consideration. 

It will be seen from reading the quotations from the fourth 
annual report that this matter received due consideration. 

Charters have been granted the following lodges : Cali 
fornia, Louisville, Ky. ; Sharpsburg, Ky. , Slickaway, Ky.. 
Wilsonville, Ky., Carlisle, Ky., Chaplin, Ky., Beach Fork, 
Ky., Trigg Furnace, Ky. ; also applications from Hopkins- 
ville and Bardstown, Kv. 






By B. J. Crampton : 

WHEREAS, We have in our midst representatives from 
Indiana, over which State our present charter gives no juris 
diction ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the chair appoint a Judiciary Committee 
of three to consider and devise some means by which we 
may effect a union of all the lodges of said State, claiming to 
be United Brothers of Friendship, and those of other States. 

Resolved, That the New Albany delegation be considered 
a part of this assembly and have the same privileges of our 
State until the question relating to said lodge be settled. 

Resolutions adopted. 

D. A. Walker, J. T. Hudson, and N. P. Greenup were 
appointed as the Judiciary Committee. 


The legality of the lodges organized under our charter in 
Indiana was tested in a suit entered against one of our tem 
ples, of which Sister Patsie Hart was Princess. The court 
decided that the charter from Kentucky was a legal docu 
ment, and that, as subordinates under that charter, they had 
a right to assemble and transact business. 

On another occasion, Edwin Horn, a member of Evans- 
ville Lodge, who was also our first National Grand Secretary, 
was appointed to consult an eminent jurist in reference to a 
National Charter for our National Grand Lodge. Judge 
Walter Q. Gresham informed him that " it was not necessary 
in order to make our proceedings legal, as each Grand 
Lodge was chartered by the State in which it resided." 


By the Judiciary Committee : 

Resolved, That we call a National Convention of all the 
United Brothers of Friendship in the United States for the 
purpose of forming a grand consolidation of all the societies 
claiming to be United Brothers of Friendship, that a National 
Grand Lodge may be formed, said Convention to be called 
as early as practicable. 


By B. J. Crampton : 

WHEREAS, That the Order of United Brothers of Friend 
ship, to all intents and purposes, is a purely benevolent 
organization ; and 

WHEREAS, Our object is to reach down to those of our 
race in the lowest state of degradation and ignorance and 
raise them up to the common level of manhood ; and 

WHEREAS, We believe that the introduction of grips and 
other signs of recognition into our Order (thereby resolving 
ourselves into a secret organization) will be a great barrier 
to our Order as above set forth. 

Resolved, That the resolutions pertaining to said signs of 
recognition be finally dropped. 

Resolution adopted. 

It will be seen from this resolution that the brethren at 
this, session were not prepared for a secret order. This 
matter was discussed from the time of the first Convention, 
through our subordinate and State Grand Lodge meetings, 
and by communications from sister States, with its consum 
mation in the years A. D. eighteen hundred and seventy- 
five and seventy-six. 

[NOTE Second Annual Grand Lodge did not meet, on account ol 
small-pox, at Frankfort, the place of meeting.] 


"The number of lodges in the city of Louisville now 
number five. A growing feeling has been manifested to in- 


troduce into our lodges secret signs of recognition, a matter 
that has been before the Grand Lodge before. We would 
recommend that some action be taken on the subject. 

" We were compelled to call an extra meeting of all the 
lodges in the city of Louisville in February, with the Grand 
Council and Past officers, for the reason that a spirit of insub 
ordination was manifested by several members of the Grand 
Council in calling a public meeting in the city for the pur 
pose of introducing signs of recognition into the Order 
against my proclamation forbidding the meeting, and for 
holding correspondence with officers of a sister State Grand 
Lodge, making proposals for them to come into our State 
and interfere with the officers in our jurisdiction and favored 
charter rights. The meeting called by us was largely at 
tended ; and in order that these refractory brethren might 
be allayed until the meeting of the Grand Lodge, we com 
municated to that meeting all the correspondence that we 
then had in our possession which was the property and the 
business of this Grand Lodge, and by doing so the brethren 
were convinced that we were faithfully discharging the duties 
that this Grand Lodge intrusted to us. Since then, we be 
lieve that general satisfaction has existed. 

" On the 1 6th of March we called an extra session of the 
Grand Lodge. The object of the meeting was to consider 
the date and place of meeting for the National Convention, a 
proposition having been received from St. Louis, Mo., ten 
dering that city for the meeting. The following lodges were 
represented : Friendship, California, St. James, St. Peter, 
St. Matthews, Frankfort, Shelbyville, and Lexington. 

" Brethren, we have briefly stated the transactions of our 
societies during the interval of the Grand Lodge, which we 
hope will meet your approval. 

"There will be an extra amount of business for this Grand 
Lodge to transact on account of the coming Convention in 
July next, and here let me say, that the foreign correspond 
ence from several Grand Lodges and subordinates, received 
during the year, I will now have read, by your permission. 

"Correspondence read from Brownville, Mo., St. Louis, 
Mo. (5), Boonville, Mo. (2), Natchez, Miss., Austin, Tex 


(4), Arkansas, Keokuk, Iowa (2), Paducah, Ky. , Covington, 
Ky. (4), Warren County, Mo., Replies No. 10, 12, 18. 

"Committee on Correspondence recommended all sub 
ordinate lodges, with their Grand Lodges, to meet in Louis 
ville on the 2oth of July next in National Convention, where 
we anticipate a happy reunion of sentiment and a permanent 
foundation built for our Order throughout these United 

"Lodges chartered during the year, viz. : St. James, St. 
Matthews, Moorefield, Paris, Georgetown, and Covington." 



Pursuant to call the Convention assembled. The Grand 
Chief of the State, Wm. H. Gibson, Sr., called the Con 
vention to order and stated its object. 

On motion, Wm. H. Gibson, Sr. , was elected Tempo 
rary Chairman, and H. P. Gains, of Lexington, Tempo 
rary Secretary. 

A Committee of seven on Credentials was appointed, 
viz. : Bros. J. H. Rector, St. Louis, Mo. ; W. H. Russell, 
Shelbyville, Ky. ; Boyd, of Indiana ; Been, of Texas; A. 
Washington, of Iowa; Peters and McClosky, of Kentucky. 
J. H. Taylor and T. Henderson, proxy for Arkansas. 


Taylorsville Lodge, J. A. Herron and Nathaniel Mathews ; 
Wilsonville Lodge, D. S. Miles and Jos. Richardson; Falls 
City Lodge, Daniel McElroy and Ed. Bowen; St. Peter 
Lodge, W. H. Jones, Wm. Peters, and W. Hunt; Fairfield 
Lodge, C. H. Johnson, L. Hughes, and L. Lewis; Coving- 


ton Lodge, C. Goins, J. W. Hillman, and J. Conner; Chap 
lin Lodge, R. Morrison, B. McMicken, and Geo. Harrison; 
St. Matthews Lodge, R. Harris, J. Smith, and Ed. Butler; 
Good Samaritan Lodge, W. Stuban; Moorefield Lodge, T. 
Jones, W. H. Metcalf, and Geo. Davis; Bloomfield Lodge, 
Geo. Russell, R. W. McClosky, and P. P. Shaw ; Maysville 
Lodge, J. H. Nates; California Lodge, J. Dandridge, J. 
Gaddy, and H. Harris; Lexington Lodge, H. P. Gains and 
H. J. Ferguson; Friendship Lodge, Robert Fox, W. H. 
Lawson, and E. P. Brannan; Charity Lodge, A. Williams, 
B. J. Crampton, and F. W. Woolfork; St. James Lodge, J. 
Montgomery, H. C. Parker, and J. H. Logan ; Scott Lodge, 
Z. H. Shores and C. Smith; Excelsior Lodge, B. Tyler; 
Owensboro Lodge, J. A. Fields and Morton; Sharpsburg 
Lodge, Lewis and Clemmon ; Hardinsburg Lodge, L. C. 

MISSOURI. Moberly Lodge, No. 9, J. H. Rector, proxy; 
Owsley Lodge, J. M. Richardson ; Macon Lodge, C. H. 
Tandy ; St. John Lodge, J. H. Rector, proxy. 

TEXAS. Austin Lodge, J. Been; Brenham Lodge, Galves- 
ton Lodge, and Fisherville Lodge, J. Been, proxy. 

ARKANSAS. Arkansas Lodge, J. H. Taylor and J. T. 
Hudson, proxy. 

IOWA. Keokuk Lodge, Archy Washington. 

INDIANA. St. Luke Lodge, J. S. Boyd, J. Harrison, and 
Stephen Douglass. 

The Committee on Permanent Organization reported the 
following officers : 

J. H. Rector, of St. Louis, Mo., President. 

J. H. Taylor, of Louisville, Ky., Vice President. 

C. Goins, of Covington, Ky. , Secretary. 

J. Fields, of Owensboro, Ky., Assistant Secretary. 


The following important resolutions were adopted at this 
meeting : 

WHEREAS, The society known as the United Brothers of 
Friendship, established in 1861, for benevolent purposes, has 
met the most earnest expectations of its founders in its cir 
culation of principles, the accession of members, and the 
organization of lodges first in the State of Kentucky, 
then reaching into other States, thereby showing its useful 
ness; and, whereas, the several lodges of Kentucky, Mis 
souri, and Texas, with other subordinate lodges, have issued 
a proclamation for this Convention, the object of which is to 
form a more perfect union of the Brotherhood ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That this Convention adopt a system of signs, 
grips, and tokens of recognition, whereby the brethren of 
the Order may be known throughout the United States of 

Resolved, That, whereas this Convention has accomplished 
the purposes for which it was called, viz. : to form a more 
perfect union of the Brotherhood, and also the introduction 
of signs, grips, and pass-words of universal recognition, and 
for the purpose of drafting a constitution that will meet the 
demands of each and every State Grand Lodge working un 
der the jurisdiction of the Order, we do adjourn, to meet in 
St. Louis, Mo., one year hence. 

A grand procession was formed on the last day of the 
Convention and paraded the principle streets of the city. 
Speeches were made at night by delegates chosen for the 
occasion. The ladies spread refreshments, consisting of all 
the delicacies of the season. 

C. H. Tandy, orator, assisted by J. H. Taylor, J. H. Rec 
tor, and others. Their speeches tended greatly towards cre 
ating a sentiment that riveted the action of the Convention 
and encouraged many to apply to our local lodges for mem 


P. N. D. G. M. 




P. N. C. 



After the adjournment of the Convention held in 1875, at 
Louisville, Ky. , we received a visit from a gentleman by the 
name of Foster. He introduced himself as a brother hail 
ing from Little Rock, Arkansas, stating that a club had been 
organized for a lodge of United Brothers of Friendship, and 
that he had been sent to inquire into its workings. We gave 
him such information as we thought necessary. He remained 
in our city for several days and, we learned, borrowed money 
from some parties, and that was the last of him, until we 
heard of him in Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana, 
claiming to be the authorized agent or organizer for the 
LTnited Brothers of Friendship, collecting money for sup 
plies, regalias, pins, etc., to the amount of hundreds of dol 
lars, always in advance, and the goods never arrived. Hence 
our trip to those States, after a continual solicitation, to ferret 
out these matters. 



The Convention of 1875 adjourned to meet in St. Louis, 
Mo., Monday, July 24, 1876. 

J. H. Rector, of Mo., called the meeting to order and 
stated the object. 

J. H. Rector was chosen Temporary Chairman, and W. T. 
Coleman, of Kentucky, Temporary Secretary. 

A Committee on Permanent Organization, Committee on 
Credentials, and Committee on Rules were appointed. 

In the absence of these committees the Convention was 
addressed by the following named gentlemen and brothers : 


W. R. Vanburen, Texas; J. T. Amos, Indiana; W. H. Gib 
son, Sr. , Kentucky, and F. W. Washington, Indiana. 

The Committee on Permanent Organization reported the 
following, who were elected : 

W. H. Gibson, Sr. , Kentucky, President. 

C. H. Tandy, Missouri, Vice President. 

E. C. Wood, Kentucky, Secretary. 

B. S. Alpine, Missouri, First Assistant Secretary. 

E. F. Horn, Indiana, Second Assistant Secretary. 

W. H. Gilbert, Missouri, Chaplain. 

W. L. Bailey, Kentucky, Reporter. 

The Committee on Credentials made the following report, 
which was adopted : 


ARKANSAS. J. H. Rector, proxy for Steele Lodge. 

ILLINOIS. Steven Lodge, No. 7, of Sparta, F. M. Bar 
tholomew; Circle Lodge, No. 8, of Alton, W. H. E. Ellis- 
worth; Monroe Lodge, No. 4, of Cairo, James Thomas. 

INDIANA. Asbury Lodge, No. i, of Evansville, E. F. 
Horn; Washington Lodge, No. 2, Chas. Asbury, F. D. Mor 
ton, and R. Nichols. 

IOWA. Washington Lodge, No. i, of Keokuk, Archy 

KENTUCKY. Henderson Lodge, No. 3, Elijah Ash and 
J. T. Amos; W. H. Gibson, Sr. , proxy for Fairneld Lodge, 
No. ii, Lexington Lodge, No. 5, Lexington Lodge, No. 6; 
Friendship Lodge, No. i, Louisville, E. P. Brannan, R. C. 
Fox, and W. T. Coleman ; Falls City Lodge, No. 41, W. 
L. Johnson; Owensboro Lodge, No. 7, J. A. Fields and 
G. Alexander; St. Paul Lodge, No. , J. H. Burbridge ; 
Hazelton Lodge, No. 45, W. N. Spalding, S. Stone, and 
E. C. Wood; Green Lodge, No. 47, J. H. Brown; Cali 
fornia Lodge, No. 12, H. Harris; St. James Lodge, No. 21, 
Wm. Smith; Sharpsburg Lodge, No. 33, by proxy; Golden 
Rule Lodge, No. 37, W. L. Bailey ; St. Mathews Lodge, 
No. 32, L. H. Williams; Sumner Lodge, No. 52, A. Mar- 


tin; St. Peter s Lodge, No. 22, R. Letcher; Carthagenian 
Lodge, No. 50, D. Williams; Gaines Lodge, No. 46, T. M. 
Brown ; Lebanon Lodge, No. 53, W. H. Gibson, Jr., proxy; 
Bloomfield Lodge, No. 5, Chaplin Lodge, No. 14, W. H. 
Gibson, Sr. , proxy. 

OHIO. Smith Lodge, No. i, Cincinnati, C. J. Burkley, Jr. 

MISSOURI. Steel Lodge, No. 8, J. Fields and J. Harris; 
Rockport Lodge, No. 47, and Macon City Lodge, No. 6, R. 
S. Cox and B. S. Alpine; Moberly Lodge, No. 9, B. F. Bush, 
Chas. Bartlett, and W. H. Thompson; Kirkwood Lodge, No. 
12, F. W. N. Carter, S. Renfro, and H. Johnson; Webb 
Lodge, No. 16, F. Brown, proxy; Owsley Lodge, No. 3, 
Ashley Lodge, No. 4, F. Brown, proxy; Scott Lodge, No. 
i, G. W. Bryant, F. Hardy, and A. Payne; Hannibal Lodge, 
No. 3, O. H. Webb, proxy; Monroe Lodge, No. 2, David 
Urland ; Parris Lodge, No. 1 1, John Taylor and O. H. Webb, 
proxy ; Palmyra Lodge, No. 6, O. H. Webb, proxy. 

TEXAS. Austin Lodge, No. i, W. B. Vanburen ; Bren- 
ham Lodge, No. 2, Galveston Lodge, No. 3, Fishville Lodge, 
No. 4, Liberty Lodge, No. 5, Belmont Lodge, No. 6, In 
dustry Lodge, No. 7, Bryan Lodge, No. 8, Harrisburg Lodge, 
No. 9, W. B. Vanburen, proxy. 

The Convention being regularly organized, a Business 
Committee was appointed, as follows : J. H. Rector, R. C. 
Fox, Robert Harris, Jas. Thomas, J. H. Taylor, Wm. Spald- 
ing, F. Brown, A. Washington, C. Bartlett. 

The following resolution was offered and passed: 

WHEREAS, There exists two factions of the United Broth 
ers of Friendship in this Convention ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That each representative in this Convention 
pledge himself to abide by the decision of this Convention, 
and adhere to the enactments of the same. 


WHEREAS, A National Convention of United Brothers of 
Friendship is called to convene in the city of St. Louis, Mo., 
on the 24th of July, 1876; and, 


WHEREAS, The object of the Convention is to perfect the 
reunion that was formed last year in the city of Louisville, 
Ky., by the States of Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, Iowa, Ken 
tucky, and Indiana ; and, 

WHEREAS, Much good has been accomplished in this 
State by the said union, and by the introduction of signs, 
grips, and pass-words ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of the representatives of 
our lodges throughout the State, that each State should form 
a Grand Lodge as soon as three subordinate lodges are formed 
and chartered. 

Resolved, That it is also the opinion of the representatives 
of this State, that an act of incorporation should be obtained 
by each State Grand Lodge. 

The Business Committee reported the following : 

We carefully examined the two works presented, and we 
find that the first degree of W. H. Gibson, Sr. , and Frank 
Washington s are so much alike that we accept Bro. Gibson s 
first degree, and further recommend the second and third 
degree of Missouri Grand Lodge, with some amendments. 

By Smith Lodge, of Cincinnati, O. : 

Resolved, That a book be compiled containing all the 
work of the United Brothers of Friendship, viz. : Rules, 
regulations of lodges, lectures, oath, Mysterious Ten, hymns, 
funeral ceremonies, the duty of every officer, and form of 

By the Business Committee : 

WHEREAS, There are ladies connected with both branches 
of the Order as it previously existed; and, 

WHEREAS, We, in this Convention, have consolidated, 
and we desire this bond of union to include the ladies ; 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the union that is formed between us, be 
formed between them (the ladies). Be it further 


Resolved, That as the degrees are in possession of the 
ladies of Indiana, Missouri, Iowa, and Kentucky, that they 
be, together with the title, "LADIES TEMPLE," adopted for 
the ladies now belonging to or related to the Order through 
out the United States; and be it further 

Resolved, That the Committee on Degrees be furnished 
with the work of the different temples, and write them, so 
that all may have the same work. 


The following resolution was offered by J. T. Amos and 
J. Burbridge, of Kentucky: 

Resolved, That this Convention, before its adjournment, 
shall organize itself into a National Grand Lodge, the officers 
of which shall be as follows : A National Grand Master, Na 
tional Deputy Grand Master, National Grand Secretary, As 
sistant National Grand Secretary, National Grand Treasurer, 
two National Grand Trustees, National Grand Chaplain, and 
National Grand Sword Bearer. 

The Convention being called to order, the following reso 
lutions were offered by Bro. F. D. Morton and adopted : 

WHEREAS, We, the delegates and past and present Grand 
Officers of the United Brothers of Friendship, have been 
called to assemble in National Convention in the city of St. 
Louis; and 

W T HEREAS, We feel that our meeting here has been for, 
and has secured, that union between us which we have long 
desired and prayed for ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we extend our heartfelt thanks and mani 
fest our feelings of respect and obligation to our worthy Pres 
ident, W. H. Gibson, of Kentucky, who has ruled so judi 
ciously and impartially in this, our Convention ; be it further 

Resolved, That we extend our heartfelt thanks to the Com 
mittee on Business that has handled and directed the busi 
ness of this Convention with such indisputable wisdom, and 
may the Divine Ruler shower his blessings upon their heads 
throughout their future lives ; and be it 


Resolved, That we feel a debt of gratitude to the officers 
and members of this Convention for their punctuality and 
earnestness in the work of the Convention ; be it further 

Resolved, That we extend our thanks to the citizens of St. 
Louis, and that a copy of the resolutions be furnished for 
publication, and also that the resolutions be recorded in the 
minutes of this Convention. 


The following brethren were elected to serve for two years, 
viz. : W. H. Gibson, Sr., of Kentucky, National Grand 
Master ; J. T. Amos, of Kentucky, Deputy National Grand 
Master; E. F. Horn, of Indiana, National Grand Secretary; 
R. C. Fox, of Kentucky, National Grand Treasurer ; W. R. 
Vanburen, of Texas, First National Grand Trustee; F. 
Washington, of Indiana, Second National Grand Trustee ; 

E. P. Brannan, of Kentucky, National Grand Chaplain ; 

F. D. Morton, of Indiana, National Grand Lecturer. 

As we have before remarked that we should divide this 
history into two epochs, it will be observed that it has 
required three Conventions, beginning with that of 1871 and 
terminating with 1876, to complete and permanently estab 
lish the order of the United Brothers of Friendship, Knights 
of Friendship, and the Sisters of the Mysterious Ten. We 
have quoted from the minutes a portion of the most im 
portant resolutions discussed before that body, so that the 
reader of this history may be informed in regard to the opin 
ions entertained in the Conventions in regard to a union of 
all the lodges into a National Grand Body. It will be seen 
that there were those among the delegates who were opposed 
to a National Federation and in favor of only a State Grand 
Body, but a majority favored the resolution offered by Bros. 
Amos and Burbridge. The resolution, when passed, caused 


great rejoicing and shaking of hands, and was made unani 


The brethren at St. Louis had introduced a secret work 
before the brethren of Kentucky, and, as an effort was being 
put forth to establish a National Grand Lodge, we were un 
willing to introduce anything pertaining to secrecy until we 
had accomplished that object. There were parties in St. 
Louis anxious to come over and introduce their work, and 
parties here encouraging them to come. This was discour 
aged by us for the reason that all of our correspondence was 
through our Grand Lodge and its officers to officers of other 
States, and we did not wish to forestall any of the proceed 
ings that would naturally come before that body. Therefore, 
at the first Convention held in Louisville in 1875, one secret 
degree was introduced for recognition. At the Convention 
that met in St. Louis in 1876 we encountered considerable 
opposition from those parties who were so desirous of intro 
ducing signs or secrets before the meeting of the Convention. 
Letters were produced showing that parties in our city 
(Louisville, Ky.,) were cognizant of the affair, and had been 
sowing the seeds of discord. But after the matter was duly 
considered and explained, and the schemes laid bare and 
exposed, it was submitted to the Committee on Degrees. 
Success attended every effort, and the object for which we 
met was accomplished. 

We were highly entertained by the citizens of St. Louis. 
There was a grand parade to the park, where a large con 
course of people were enlivened with music and speeches by 
the brethren. 



"Brethren of Friendship Again we have met as a Grand 
Lodge, through the mercies of an all-wise Providence, to 
transact the business of another year. Since our last meet 
ing prosperity has attended our efforts and the progress of 
our Order has surprised the most sanguine expectations. 

"After the rise of the Grand Lodge in May, 1875, m 
Owensboro, a Convention met in Louisville, July, 1875, f r 
the object of uniting all of the lodges known as the United 
Brothers of Friendship. Six States were there represented 
and the union formed. You have before you the proceed 
ings of said Convention. One of the main features of it 
was the introduction of signs, grips, and pass-words, making 
our society a secret one. It at once gave a new impetus to 
the lodges. One degree was introduced for the first year as 
a trial ; so far, it has worked admirably. 

"The Convention adjourned to meet in one year from the 
time of its adjournment, at St. Louis, Mo., at which time it 
met, and we are proud to say that our Grand Lodge was 
nobly represented. There were eight States represented in 
the Convention several States that were not represented in 
the first were there also a portion of this Order known as 
the National Wing of the Order, whose location was in Mis 
souri, and who had not confederated with us in the union of 
1875. The object of the Convention was to harmonize, if 
possible, the two wings or factions. State and National, and 
also to make a uniform work for them, if the union could be 
accomplished. We are proud to say that we were successful 
in our mission and object. After a thorough investigation of 
the charter rights of each State, and the origin of our Order, 
also the rights and privileges derived from the laws of the 
several States, contained in their charters, a resolution was 
offered that each party of the Brotherhood would agree to 
sustain whatever the Convention would do in regard to mak 
ing the union permanent, said resolution being the basis on 
which the delegates acted. Hence a union was formed on 
the following basis : 

" That the work of the Order shall consist of three de 
grees, those degrees to be arranged as follows : The Con- 


vention at Louisville, in 1875, organized on a basis of one 
degree, known as the First Degree of Kentucky. Missouri s 
second and third degrees to be retained and added to the 
first degree of Kentucky, making three degrees. 

The subject of a National Grand Lodge was next pre 
sented. This subject was thoroughly discussed and many 
reasons given, pro and con, by the delegates. It was finally 
agreed upon to form a National Grand Head. The officers 
were nominated and elected. Your humble servant and 
several of the Kentucky members were elected to positions 
in the new compact. The action of this Convention touch 
ing the National is to be ratified by the several Grand Lodges 
at their first session. It will be a matter for your present 

"The duties of this year have been arduous. Owing to 
these proposed Conventions we have had a very extensive 
correspondence with the officers of Grand and subordinate 
lodges touching the subject of the Convention and the 
changes attending it. The lodges of our State under the 
jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge are in a prosperous condi 
tion, as far as we can learn. 

"We have visited a number of the lodges in this State, 
but not all of them. We made the following visits : Lexing 
ton, Covington, Maysville, Cincinnati, O., Bloomfield, Fair- 
field, Taylorsville, Chaplin, Shelby ville, Lebanon, Stanford, 
Frankfort, and our city lodges. We found the lodges, gen 
erally, prosperous, with but little to distract and interrupt 
their progress. We also deputized our Past Grand Officer, 
H. P. Gaines, to visit the lodges at Flemingsburg, Paris, 
Georgetown, and Mt. Sterling, and to establish lodges at 
Lexington and Danville. We also deputized Bro. D. M. 
Brown to establish a lodge at Cadiz, Ky. We also deputized 
the Grand Secretary to visit Wilsonville Lodge, which he 
reported in good condition. 

" Letters have been received during the year from various 
directions, in and out of the State, for information concern 
ing the establishment of lodges, their work, etc. Such infor 
mation has been given by letter and by a distribution of 
minutes and constitutions, which has had the desired effect 



toward the establishment of lodges. Our State now num 
bers fifty-six lodges, eleven of which are in the city of Louis 

" The resolution passed by the Convention of 1875, held 
in this city, concerning Ladies Temples for the Order, has 
been put into successful operation. Several charters have 
been granted, two being in the city of Louisville and one in 
the city of Covington, and we have applications for others. 
We highly commend this female branch of the Order as tend 
ing to elevate our wives and daughters by bringing them 
nearer to us in the ties and mysteries that we so highly 

"A special session of the members of the Grand Council 
and Masters of the city lodges was called on the - - day of 
February for the reason that a spirit of insubordination was 
exhibited by Bro. Henry Wilson, the acting Master of Hazel- 
ton Lodge ; said brother having persistently introduced reg 
ulations into the Order without permission from the Grand 
Master or Grand Lodge, and in violation of section 7 of the 

"At said meeting the Grand Master was sustained by the 
Grand Council and Masters. Bro. Wilson stands suspended 
by the Grand Master, and also by his lodge, for improper 
conduct. Said brother also wrote a very unfair letter to the 
St. Louis Convention against the officers and delegates of the 
Grand Lodge, containing many falsehoods, which had a 
tendency to hinder our progress for a while in the Conven 
tion. We remand his case to this Grand Lodge for con 

Bro. St. Louis Davis, a member of our Order, who left 
us about six years ago, to take work in the ministry, in the 
State of Arkansas, and who was also successful in establish 
ing lodges in that State, is among the deceased of this year. 
We have received letters of his demise. He died in the 
triumph of a living faith, with a wish that his brethren should 
meet him in heaven. 

"We have a communication from the Knights of the 
United Brothers of Friendship, of Detroit, Mich., through 
our esteemed and worthy brother, J. H. Rector, desiring our 


co-operation in that direction, he having been assigned to 
the work of establishing encampments throughout the South. 

" Brethren, this has been one of the most successful years 
of the Order. We have granted charters to nineteen lodges. 
Eight of them were granted to Louisville. We have much 
to be proud of. It is our fifteenth anniversary, with fifty-six 
lodges in the State, a Grand Lodge, and a union formed with 
eight sister States, and several others asking recognition into 
the Brotherhood. In the language of one of old, Surely 
God is with us, for he is turning the hearts of the young 
men to virtuous habits, and from vice and immorality. 
Hundreds of them are studying and learning the golden 
rules of our Order. Young women are entering the temples, 
that they, too, with their brethren, may learn these mys 
teries, and inculcate them in their lives. Brethren, you 
have a golden harvest before you, then * thrust in the 
sickle ! 

"For five years you have intrusted to my charge the 
guidance of this Order ; you have honored me with the high 
est honor that of Grand Master. I have endeavored to 
fulfill the trust faithfully that you have so often reposed in 
me, and if I have met with success, it has been by the help 
of God and your assistance. I have erred at times, I doubt 
not; but it is human to err. I claim not perfection, but I 
know that to err has never been intentional during my admin 
istration. I have striven to deal justly with the brethren, 
yet tempered with mercy, and now that my term will expire 
at the close of this session, I had hoped to be relieved from 
the cares of an office for at least a year. But, behold! a 
greater responsibility has fallen upon me by the National 
Convention conferring upon me the office of National Grand 
Master. Instead of looking after the interest of one State, 
I shall have the interest of many States to which to admin 
ister; yet in this capacity, in my new position, I earnestly 
ask the assistance and general co-operation of the entire 

"In conclusion, my brethren, it will devolve upon you to 
select one from your midst to be your Grand Master. You 
have a number of worthy brethren that no doubt will serve 


you faithfully and competently. Hence I leave the matter 
in your hands, hoping that you will make a wise and judi 
cious selection. I thank you, brethren, for your many kind 
regards and the support that you have given me for five 
years as Grand Master. 

"WM. H. GIBSON, SR., Grand Master. 


It was one of interest. The actions of the National were 
to be ratified by each State Grand Lodge. A Grand Master 
for the State of Kentucky was to be elected and the report 
of the former Grand Master, who had been promoted to the 
office of National Grand Master, was to be received also. 

The reports of the delegates to the National Convention 
were to be received and adopted. 

A resolution was offered, and passed unanimously, that a 
vote of thanks be tendered Bro. W. H. Gibson, Sr., for his 
faithful services during five years as Grand Master of the 
State; and also that he be presented with a gold chain, the 
presentation to take place at the Exposition building at 1 1 
o clock P. M., August 25, 1876. 

The presentation by J. H. Taylor, P. G. V. P., was per 
formed in the presence of an immense audience. 



LOUISVILLE, July i, 1878. 

2o the National Grand Officers and Members of the United 

Brothers of Friendship : 

BROTHERS I take great pleasure in presenting to you the 
following report of the financial transactions of my office 
from July, 1876, to July, 1878, with the hope that you will 


find everything satisfactory as to the discharge of the duties 
incumbent upon me as National Grand Master. 

Through the providence of God we are again permitted 
to meet in our biennial session. Since last we met many 
voices that joined with us in our lodge exercises have departed 
this life, and their names are registered on the death-roll of 
our Order, and we trust that their spirits are enjoying the re 
pose of that better land for which we are all struggling. 

Since the adjournment of the National Grand Session we 
have endeavored to perform the responsible duties devolving 
upon us in consequence of the high and honorable position 
to which you have seen fit to exalt us. We entered upon 
those duties without any written laws to govern us save such 
usages as are customary to a National Grand Master having 
the oversight of the whole Order throughout the States. Our 
first business, after leaving St. Louis, Mo., was to arrange 
for the publishing of the minutes and secret work of the 
Grand Session, said work being delegated to us by the Con 
vention. These duties were performed to the very best of 
our ability, though without any means to meet expenses, 
which amounted to a sum bordering on two hundred dollars. 
After the work was printed and ready for delivery we noti 
fied the proper authorities of the several States and waited 
for remittances to meet expenses, as was agreed upon at St. 
Louis, Mo. With but few exceptions, the reply was to send 
the work, but, as the lodges were not able to pay or settle 
then, they would do so hereafter. We did not feel justified 
in doing so, hence a large portion of the work remained in 
the printing office for one year before it was paid for and 
distributed to the lodges. Here, let me say. that we had to 
deviate from the course we had intended to pursue when we 
started out, which was to have all moneys pass through the 
hands of the National Grand Secretary and National Grand 
Treasurer, as is customary ; but for the reason that we were 
held responsible for the printing and the State lodges re 
sponded so slowly or indifferently to our request to pay their 
pro rata of expenses, we were compelled to take a different 
course. That course was this : to use the money on appli 
cation for charters to the liquidation of the printing bill, as 


the money could not be collected as provided for by the 
National Grand Lodge at St. Louis, viz. : that each State 
should pay for its portion of printing. 

The duties of the National Grand Master, as we under 
stand them, was to establish lodges and temples in States 
where there were no Grand Lodges existing. This we have 
done, and by pursuing this course we have succeeded in 
paying off the National Grand Lodge debts and have a small 
balance to turn over to the National Grand Treasury. 

This course of procedure was somewhat out of the proper 
channel, but it was a case of emergency, where we were 
dunned for the printing bill, and there being no other 
resource, we took this, hoping that when the Grand Lodge 
assembled it would verify our acts so far as they were con 
sistent. We informed the National Grand Secretary of our 
course at different times and assigned the reasons for so 
doing. Several charters granted by me failed to have the 
Secretary s signature attached, as we were separated by many 
miles, and it was inconvenient to have them signed without 
incurring the expense of double postage and no treasury to 
draw from. 

These charters can be called in and others given, or his 
signature authorized and affixed. 

Another matter has given me considerable trouble, and 
also attached to it some expense, that is, the imposition of a 
so-called Grand Master for the State of Arkansas, in the per 
son of one J. C. Foster, who has roamed the State of Arkan 
sas, some portion of Tennessee, Louisiana, and Texas the 
latter State he has swindled out of hundreds of dollars, by 
collecting in advance money for charters, degree books, re 
galias, pins, etc. He has represented himself as Deputy 
National Grand Master, claiming that his authority was re 
ceived from us as National Grand Master. He was more 
successful in Texas than elsewhere, from the fact that the 
State is very large, and contains a vast territory five times 
as large as the State of New York. We had a Grand Lodge 
in that State, and yet it appears that in the northern part of 
the State, where he was operating, they did not know that a 
Grand Lodge existed. About twelve lodges were organized 


by him and large amounts of money gathered, with the as 
surance that he had written to the National Grand Master 
for charters, and that he was waiting for them. They waited 
until their patience became threadbare; they then took mat 
ters into their own hands, and began writing and dispatching to 
me, relating the state of affairs, and threatening a dissolu 
tion, and to organize into some other order. We wrote to 
them that there was a Grand Lodge in the State of Texas, 
and gave them the name and address of the Grand Master. 
Their reply to me was this : That they had been deceived by 
deputies, and that if the head of the Order would or could 
not visit them, that they would disband. 

After consultation and deliberation we concluded to risk 
a visit to Texas, and save those brethren to our Order who 
desired to be with us, but were ignorant of our workings. 

We left Louisville October 14, 1877, for Sherman, Texas, 
and arrived on the i7th; met the brethern and sisters tem 
ple, lectured, and put them in working order; remained two 
days; left on the i8th, p. M., for Dallas, Texas, in company 
with Bro. Henry Reid, of Sherman, who rendered us very 
efficient service; arrived at Dallas, met the lodge, gave in 
structions, heard grievances, and set them to work; met 
same lodge on the ipth; invited to Fort Worth, but did not 
go; left the same night for Austin and arrived there on the 
2oth, and met several Grand Officers of the State, with the 
subordinate lodge of Austin a noble band of brothers who 
received us cheerfully. 

We compared our work, and such changes as we deemed 
necessary we made; we also informed the Grand Officers of 
the depredations of Foster, and heard the grievances of that 
body against him, who, they asserted, had robbed them of 
their means by imposition, and that they desired to be set 
right and receive the proper work. We obligated them and 
put them in possession of the work. Other lodges in the 
northern part of the State applied and needed our attention, 
Fort Worth, Jefferson, Texarkana, and Shreveport, about 
one dozen lodges in all. Under the circumstances we deemed 
it advisable to visit the southern part of the State and confer 
with the Grand Master and officers, and acquaint them with 


the state of affairs. After writing and dispatching we re 
ceived pressing invitations to visit them. Then we con 
ceived the idea of the necessity of deputizing some one to 
visit the lodges of the northern portion of the State and in 
form them of our presence in the State, and also to give in 
structions as received from us. For that purpose we selected 
Rev. Henry Reid, of Sherman, who had urged every means 
to have the Order set right before the people of Texas. We 
authorized him to act as deputy over those lodges until the 
time for the call of the Grand Lodge of Texas, and then re 
port to that meeting. We thought this whole matter would 
be settled, and that the northern lodges would be recognized 
and be received under the State Grand Lodge of Texas. 

Hence my visit to the southern portion of the State to 
confer with the Grand Master and Grand Officers, and in 
form them in person, and map out a plan for a union of the 
legitimate and illegitimate lodges. 

We granted charters to Sherman and Bonham, and obli 
gated them at Dallas, so that they might be properly within 
the fold. 

We visited Austin, arriving there on the 2oth, and were 
received by W. H. Mitchell and a number of the leading 
members, also Bro. Black, Deputy Grand Master of Texas; 
visited the lodge on the 2ist and 226. inst, lectured, revised 
their work, and conferred with them in regard to the best 
mode to pursue towards those northern brethren who had 
been so basely deceived. The brethren expressed a desire 
to see them under the control of their Grand Lodge, and 
promised to work to that end when assembled. 

We left Austin on the 22d, at 7:15 p. M., for Houston, 
arriving there at 8:30 A. M. on the 23d inst., and met with a 
very warm reception from Bros. F. E. Banks, Watson, Green, 
and others ; met the lodge at night, had a happy reunion, was 
introduced, lectured, and set matters in order generally. 

On the 24th we left for Galveston, arriving at 12 M., and 
were received by Bro. Moses Morris and S. M. Todd, Grand 
Secretary. A very heavy storm prevented our visiting the 
lodge until Friday, the 26th, causing us to remain three 
days. We had a good time, this being the headquarters of 


the Order, with a finely furnished lodge room. We lec 
tured and tried to make ourselves generally useful, review 
ing matters pertaining to the disturbances in the State, and 
arranging with the Grand Officers on the basis mentioned 
before. I expected to have met Grand Master Vanburen, 
but was disappointed, as he had removed to another portion 
of the State, and did not get my letter until I had left the 

The time of the meeting of their Grand Lodge had passed 
without a call. We urged them to call a session as early as 
possible in order to perfect arrangements with the northern 
brethren of the State. The Grand Lodge assembled at the 
time appointed, and you have their representatives and min 
utes for reference. We learn that the matter had not been 
amicably adjusted, as we had hoped it would be, at that ses 
sion at Houston. It is, therefore, a matter for consideration 
by this Grand Assembly. There are about a dozen lodges 
claiming protection from this Grand Body. 

We have also recently received a communication from 
parties in San Antonio, Tex., claiming to be United Brothers 
of Friendship, set up by Foster, and inquiring as to his 
authority, and desiring to know if there is a Grand Lodge 
in Texas. We have written to the Grand Officers in Texas 
informing them of the matter. 

Louisiana has also been imposed upon by said Foster. A 
lodge has been organized at Shreveport, La., and we have 
received many communications from there. We sent them 
the charter gratis, as they claimed to have paid for one, and 
as we expected a delegation from there we hoped that their 
grievance would here be settled. 

We visited the State of Indiana soon after the adjourn 
ment of the National Grand Lodge. September 4, 1876, we 
organized a temple in the city of Indianapolis in the A. M. E. 
Church (Elder Lankford, pastor,) numbering one hundred 
and fifteen worthy ladies. 

September 6th we visited Covington, Ky., and organized 
a temple for our State. 

November 16, 1876, we organized a male lodge at Indian 
apolis of forty members. We were assisted by Bro. W. H. 


Lawson, one of the original founders of the Order. On the 
1 7th inst., we visited the temple, settled a difficulty, and left 
them in good condition. 

April 28, 1877, we organized a lodge in Indianapolis of 
forty-one members, all apparently good material. 

On April 3<Dth we organized, in the same city, a temple 
of ladies, visited Temple No. i at night, gave them a lecture, 
and left them in good spirits. Indianapolis is now the 
stronghold of the U. B. F. s of Indiana. 

August 20, 1877, we visited JefTersonville, Ind. , and or 
ganized a temple there. 

September 25th, organized in the same city a lodge, the 
application for which had been made before the Grand 
Lodge of Indiana had been organized, but we had not found 
it convenient to do the work. We had instructed the officers 
of the lodge to petition the Grand Lodge of Indiana, which 
they did, but the answer was unsatisfactory and they were 
about to disband, so in order to save them to our Order we 
organized the lodge. 

On our last visit to Indianapolis we advised them to con 
fer with the other lodges and call a Convention and form a 
Grand Lodge. They did so, and in July, 1877, a Grand 
Lodge was formed with Charles Asbury, Esq., as Grand 
Master, and the lodges and temples of the State are in a 
prosperous condition. 

We organized a lodge at New Albany - ,1877. 

There are now one male lodge and two temples in that city, 
all in good condition, as we learn from the officers. 

We visited the State of Ohio. There is but one lodge 
there, which is at Cincinnati, and in a flourishing condition. 
We have had an application from Dayton, in that State, for 
a lodge, but, for some cause, we have not succeeded in 
effecting an organization. We commend it to the brethren 
of Cincinnati to work up. 

We opened communication with an order in Cincinnati 
calling themselves United Brothers, who desired to know the 
terms on which they could be received into our Order. We 
furnished them with our minutes, and also met a committee. 
The only difference seemed to be a change of regalias. This 


we left with the brethren there to work up, and the future 
will tell of their success. 

. From Illinois and Iowa we have received no special com 
munication, save from Alton, that the lodge there is in good 

We have been in regular correspondence with the leading 
officers in Missouri and know nothing to mar the prosperity 
of that noble band of brothers. 

We visited Arkansas in October, 1877. In the city of 
Little Rock, where we found the Grand Master of that State, 
Bro. A. W. Kern, there is a lodge of brothers and temple of 
sisters, true types of their Order, who received us very kindly 
and courteously. We lectured there on our new work, and 
put them in possession of all that was necessary to establish 
the Order permanently there. 

We have received numerous letters from the brethren in 
Louisiana. A lodge has been organized at Shreveport, in 
that State, which has labored under many disadvantages. It 
was organized by Foster, promised a charter and degree 
books, regalias, etc., and paid for them in advance, but had 
not received them. We deputized a brother from Texas to 
go there and organize them properly, and sent them a charter 
gratis. We are expecting a representation here, and that all 
the facts in the case will be heard by this Grand Assembly. 
A sister s temple has been organized there by Bro. Dearmay 
and an application for a charter is now in our possession. 

In the city of New Orleans a body has been organized 
and are preparing to send for a charter. \Ve have sent them 
a copy of minutes and a constitution. The prospects look 
favorable in that State. 

We have a lodge in the city of Memphis, Tenn., organ 
ized by T. S. Baxter. I have received numerous letters 
from them. They have had much trouble there. We 
should have visited them at the same time that we made our 
tour to Arkansas and Texas, but could get no reply from the 
officers of the lodge. We have learned that the lodge was 
not aware of my desire to meet them. They have since had 
a lawsuit, and their treasury is low. They yet desire to 


have an official visit. We commend their case to the con 
sideration of this Convention. 

Our last visit was to Alabama, in June, 1878. At Hunts- 
ville we have a lodge and temple. A society had been estab 
lished in 1866, but, by bad management and dishonesty of 
leading officers, it had dwindled down to nothing. A few 
brethren, however, held on and endeavored to revive it. 
They recently opened communication with us and decided 
to send for a constitution and minutes. They resolved to 
reorganize under our charter and receive the same work. 
We visited them for that purpose and installed the officers of 
a lodge and temple. The lodge is composed of about fifty 
of as good men as we have seen at any time or place, and 
the temple is composed of twenty-five amiable ladies, the 
wives and relatives of the brethren. They promise, under 
the new regime, to revolutionize the State of Alabama and 
make the United Brothers of Friendship a power within its 

There are other States in which our Order has not been 
introduced as yet, but it takes time to develop and utilize 
great institutions, and we believe we will be successful in 
organizing and establishing ours. 

The progress of the Order has been rapid since our first 
National Convention in 1875. Tne second, held in St. Louis 
in 1876, gave a new impetus to our growth. Truly, it may 
be said that " In union there is strength." It was a new 
order of a few years experience, and we have been carefully 
feeling our way, learning our weak points, and in our Con 
ventions correcting our errors in order that we might emerge 
with greater energy and zeal in behalf of our beloved insti 

One among our greatest necessities is a printing bureau, 
or sinking fund, created for the purpose of meeting the ex 
penses of our conventions or grand assemblies. We need the 
proceedings of our conventions, we need degree books, con 
stitutions, and other things pertaining to a growing order like 
this. Minutes issued nine or twelve months after the ad 
journment of a convention do not show business qualities. 
Resolutions of taxation upon the membership of lodges, 


with no power to enforce them, show weakness in the ad 
ministrative power of the lodges. Standing debts from year 
to year do not add to the influence of any individual or body 
of indviduals. Experience has taught us this lesson, and 
being desirous of profiting by the teaching of the school of 
experience, we have made the following arrangements for 
meeting the expenses of the Grand Lodge : 

We called a Council of Grand Masters of States on the 

day of February, 1878, in the city of Louisville, as in 
structed by the resolutions of the National Convention of St. 
Louis, Mo. 

There were present at that Council Grand Master Chas. 
Asbury, of Indiana; T. S. Baxter, of Kentucky; National 
Grand Treasurer R. C. Fox, National Grand Chaplain E. P. 
Bran nan, the Grand Council of Kentucky Grand Lodge, and 
the National Grand Master. 

We decided on the day of meeting, stated our plans for 
raising means for defraying expenses, and deprecated the 
strain we had labored under in raising money to defray the 
expense of our Grand meeting. 

Our plan was to sit in convention three days, and on the 
fourth day have a grand celebration, rent a park or hall, have 
an entertainment to raise the means, and the overplus divide 
among the Louisville lodges, who would be invited to assist 
in perfecting the programme. We issued our circulars, and 
accordingly, on the 3oth of April, we called a mass-meeting 
of the Louisville lodges, read numerous letters from Grand 
Masters and Officers of States approving the call, and we 
then requested the lodges to appoint a committee to co-oper 
ate with us in carrying out this programme. 

The lodges appointed their committee. After their ap 
pointment a second meeting was held, when the joint com 
mittee of lodges assumed entire control of the fourth day s 
management of the affairs of the Convention, and contended 
that this Convention had no power or control over it further 
than they permitted, more especially the financial depart 
ment, a department conceived by us, and intended to assist 
in liquidating debts that might accrue against this body whilst 
here assembled. 


Brethren, this portion of my address we deprecate, and 
would prefer that it were blank, but these are facts, and I 
desire that my acts in this particular be either approved or 

As the Executive Officer of the entire Order, we hold that 
a sub-committee from subordinate lodges have not the right 
to interfere with arrangements made by the Grand Masters 
and their Councils for raising means to defray the expenses 
of the Grand body. 

If the plan were offensive they should have resigned and 
let others be appointed. We have not been notified from 
any lodge that the provisions made were offensive, or that 
they would not support them. Hence it must not be con 
sidered that we are charging the lodges of Louisville with 
discourtesy, but only the committee that has usurped all the 
power to itself. If we have a National Grand Lodge with 
an executive at its head, we claim that it should be respected ; 
and it is with you to say, yea or nay. 

In conclusion, my brethren, having given you in detail 
the most important transactions of our Order for two years, 
we submit it for your careful consideration. 

Rev. E. W. S. Hammond, a member of the National 
Grand Lodge from Covington, Ky., figured conspicuously. 

This being the first National meeting after the organiza 
tion of the National body at St. Louis, Mo., two very import 
ant branches of the Order were to be organized, viz.: the 
National Grand Camp and the National Grand Temple and 
Sisters of the Mysterious Ten. 

To Bro. Hammond belongs the credit of composing the 
ritualistic work of the Grand Camp. He, being chairman, 
wrote it, and the committee and National Grand Lodge en 
dorsed it. He also espoused the cause of the sisters having 
a National Grand Temple. As there was considerable oppo 
sition to this feature of their organization, Bro. Hammond s 
appeal in their behalf caused a majority of the delegates to 


vote in favor of this very important measure. The wisdom 
of it has been verified long since. 

The closing scenes, a long and tedious work of five 
years accomplished, much anxiety was felt for the success 
of this meeting by the friends of the Union, for there had 
been an effort made to defeat it, and when the Convention 
was opened we found letters and adverse instructions against 
our plans, but, after a fair discussion, pro and con, the ob 
ject for which we met was accomplished. 

Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana, and Texas were repre 
sented in the persons of Grand Masters, viz.: W. H. Gibson, 
O. H. Webb, Frank Washington, and W. R. Vanburen. 
They were soon commissioned by this National Grand Body 
to go throughout this broad land, from ocean to ocean, from 
the gulf to the lakes, and proclaim the birth of a Negro 
Order, whose duty would be to gather in a portion of the 
millions of negroes who, on account of American slavery and 
an internecine war, were destitute of homes, uneducated, 
and starving for those comforts that go to make up and ele 
vate a people. By their efforts they were to build up lodges 
and temples and widow s and orphan s homes, and assist in 
educating them in all the avenues of life that tend to make 
them free and happy. The blessing of God was invoked 
upon them, and they went forth as generals leading their 
respective armies. Time has revealed how well their labors 
have been blessed. This is the foundation upon which this 
structure was built. 




The second biennial session of the National Grand Lodge 
will convene in the city of Indianapolis, Ind., July i, 1880, 
at 12 o clock M. Each Grand Lodge is entitled to five dele 
gates and subordinate lodges entitled to three. Secretaries 
of subordinate lodges will observe Articles i and 2 in Na 
tional Grand Lodge Constitution (page 36) in reference to 
taxes. All delegates will appear properly accredited. By 
order of W. H. GIBSON, N. G. M. 

ED. F. HORN, Secretary. 

Ladies of the Mysterious Ten, United Sisters of Friendship : 

The second session of the Sisterhood will assemble in the 
city of Indianapolis July 2 at 3 o clock p. M. Delegates from 
each temple will be expected to be present. Each temple 
will be entitled to three delegates, with credentials properly 
signed and attested. W. H. GIBSON, N. G. M. 

ED. F. HORN, Secretary. 


A session of the Grand Camp will be held during the ses 
sion of the Grand Lodge. On the 5th of July a grand 
parade of the Order will take place, escorted by the Knight 
hood. A competitive drill for a fine sword will take place. 
Commanders of camps are expected to have their members 
uniformed in strict conformity to the regulations. 

W. H. GIBSON, N. G. K. C. 

E. W. S. HAMMOND, N. G. Sr. K. C. 

J. H. RECTOR, N. S. C. 

J. MCLEOD, N. G. R. 


P. N. G. M. 




INDIANAPOLIS, July i, 1880. 

In pursuance to call, the National Grand Lodge convened 
in regular biennial session at the U. B. F. Hall, corner of 
Delaware and Court streets. 

The Grand Lodge was called to order at 12 o clock M. by 
D.N.G.M. A. W. Kern, of Little Rock, Ark. 

The stations were filled as follows : T. S. Baxter, D. N. 
G. M., pro tern; E. F. Horn, N. G. S. ; E. W. Marshall, 
A. N. G. S. ; J. S. McLeod, 2 d A. N. G. S. ; J. W. Hill- 
man, N. G. T. ; Fred. D. Morton, N. G. L. ; B. Gary, N. 
G. G. ; G. Asbury and J. H. Rector, N. G. T. ; A. Walters, 
N. G. M. ; F. Washington, R. S. ; H. W. Washington, L. 
S. ; J. T. Amos, L S., and W. H. Warley, O. S. 

Devotional exercises by Grand Chaplain. 

T. P. Pool, of the Committee on Reception, delivered 
the welcome address. 

Response by Rev. Wyatt Scott, of St. Louis. Mo. 

National Grand Master W. H. Gibson being detained, 
on motion the Committee of Arrangements met him at the 
evening train with carriages and music. 


National Grand Master W. H. Gibson was received with 
the honors of the Order and proceeded to make his biennial 
report, as follows : 


Bretliren of the National Grand Lodge of the United Brothers 
of Friendship : 

The work of the Second Biennial Session being closed, I 
now submit for your consideration the subjoined report; and 
as a preliminary, allow me to say that, through the dispensa- 



tion of Divine Providence, we are permitted to meet again 
and extend the greetings of friendship, and can say that "all 
is well," although we can not say that " we are all here." 

We have been caused to mourn the death of two familiar 
faces; faces dear to our memory in consequence of past as 
sociations; faces imprinted on the hearts of the Brotherhood 
on account of their great zeal in promoting the welfare of 
the Order. I speak of Bros. Jones, Grand Master of Mis 
souri, and S. M. Todd, Grand Master of Texas. May we 
sincerely say, "Brothers, rest in peace; you have fought a 
good fight, and have been conquerors go up higher." 

Now let us examine the work of the last two years and 
carefully note the result of this labor. At the adjournment 
of our last Grand Session we launched out upon the sea of 
onerous duties assigned to our hands. New laws, regula- 
lations, and degrees for both male and female were to be 
disseminated throughout our jurisdiction. With the assist 
ance of our several Grand Officers we have, to a reasonable 
extent, been successful in advancing our cause. Our first 
duty was to co-operate with the Committee on Knighthood, 
whose chairman was Bro. E. W. S. Hammond. They 
received the hearty approval of the Brotherhood upon the 
completion of the great work entrusted to them. 

The Committee on Second Degree work for the Ladies 
Temple, whose chairman was J. H. Rector, performed their 
work with that degree of perfection which reflects credit and 
demands commendation toward its originators. 

The work of these committees was printed and delivered 
to the National Grand Secretary for distribution. 

The proceeds derived from the sale of minutes, degree 
books, rituals, etc., were to be appropriated as a special 
fund to be used for the purpose of defraying the expenses of 
the National Grand Lodge. 

The Knighthood has been established upon a firm foun 
dation, and bids fair to rival that of the most advanced of 
the older secret orders, and is bringing hundreds of good 
men to the lodges of this Brotherhood. 

By persistent efforts we have succeeded, and now pre 
sent to this Order a complete outfit. Our tactics have been 


arranged according to the best methods, and are now in 
possession of the several camps. 

Our lodges and temples throughout the several States 
have been visited officially by the Grand Masters and Grand 
Lecturers, and they report rapid progress. Hundreds have 
been added to the Order in its several branches, and, as a 
result, we find necessity for more legislation upon many 
articles in our Constitution One of the greatest needs I 
find to be an equitable system of insurance. We expect to 
hear a report from the Committee on Plans of Insurance a 
a report that will meet the end sought. 

The Sisterhood, a branch of our Order of which we are 
proud, has grown to such magnitude and excellence that 
additional and broader laws are needed to meet their require 
ments. The ladies first and second degrees, in our opinion, 
are sufficient for present use, and they meet all purposes. 
We would simply recommend a change in the sign of the 
second degree. 

An organ to promulgate the interest of the Order is much 
needed. Our worthy deceased Brother, S. M. Todd, may 
justly be considered the pioneer of this work, and we refer 
with pride to his effort in this direction. By his death, we 
not only lost an efficient and active member, but an able 
little organ in defense of the Order. 

In September, 1879, tne Ohio Falls Express made its 
debut. From the able manner in which it is edited, coupled 
with its extensive circulation, it has at once taken the front 
rank among colored newspapers. It is considered the paper 
of our Order, and we are proud to say that the editors and 
proprietors, Dr. H. Fitzbutler, F. D. Morton, T. S. Baxter, 
and E. W. Marshall, are active members of the Order. 

Our Age, first a monthly, but now a weekly, was issued 
October, 1879, our National Grand Secretary, E. F. Horn, 
being its editor and proprietor. We recommend that one of 
these papers be adopted as our organ, and that this Order 
give it their hearty support. 

In October, 1877, we appointed Bro. E. W. Marshall 
Assistant National Grand Secretary. He has distinguished 
himself as an efficient officer, relieving the National Grand 


Secretary of considerable work, and he has proven a valua 
ble acquisition as an officer. 


August 1 6, 1878 By a special invitation we visited the 
lodges and temples at Huntsville, Ala., the occasion being 
their anniversary. We found them in a prosperous condi 
tion, with many of the leading citizens names enrolled as 
members and officers. We .addressed them, lectured, con 
ferred degrees, and gave such instruction as was generally 
required. The insurance system was strongly advocated, 
and a desire generally expressed for the Grand Lodge to 
introduce it. 

September 16, 1878 Organized and installed a camp at 
JefFersonville, Ind. , assisted by S. Kt. E. W. S. Hammond 
and Grand Master Chas. Asbury. 

October n, 1878 Visited Carthagenia Camp No. 2. 

October 18, 1878 Visited Carthagenia Camp No. 2. 

November 21, 1878 Organized a camp at Georgetown, 
Ky. , assisted by V. Kt. Lewis Johnson, K. C., of No. i. 

November 22, 1878 Organized a camp at Frankfort, 
Ky., assisted by V. Kt. W. L. Johnson, K. C., of No. i. 

December 31, 1878 Conference with J. H. Rector, N. J. 
K. C., of Missouri, on the uniform of the Order. (Sample 
copies exhibited.) 

December 5, 1878 Initiated candidates for Deborah 
Temple No. 28. 

December 12, 1878 Installed officers for St. Matthews 

December 18, 1878 Visited Falls City Lodge. 

January 18, 1879 Installed officers for Temple No. i, 
Louisville, Ky. 

January 20, 1879 Installed officers for Friendship Lodge 
No. i, Louisville, Ky. 

January 21, 1879 Visited Carthagenia Camp No. 2, 
Louisville, Ky. 

January 28, 1879 Visited New Albany, Ind., and in 
stalled officers for St. Luke Lodge. 


February 13, 1879 Visited New Albany, Ind., lectured 
and installed officers for Temple No; i. 

February 21, 1879 Visited Camps Nos. i and 2, Louis 
ville, Ky. , and lectured on Knighthood. 

March 5, 1879 Installed officers for Deborah Temple 
No. 28, Louisville, Ky. 

March 18, 1879 Visited Temple No. i, Louisville, Ky. 

April 5, 1879 Visited Garrison Camp No. i. 

May 1 6, 1879 Visited Chicago, 111. Organized in the 
afternoon of that day a temple of thirty-five members, and 
at night a lodge of twenty-five members. 

May 20, 1879 Visited Carthagenia No. 50. 

June 6, 1879 Visited St. Rose Temple No. 17, Louis 
ville, Ky. 

June 10, 1879 Visited Temple No. 4, Louisville, Ky. 

June 1 6, 1879 Delivered an address to Temple No. 4 
at Twelfth-street Z. A. M. E. Church; a union meeting of 
the temples. 

July 9, 1879 Visited a mass meeting of Ladies Temples. 

July 10, 1879 Installed officers for temple at Nevr 
Albany, Ind. 

July 25, 1879 Visited Hannibal Camp, Jeffersonville, 

August n, 1879 Visited Union Anniversary of Ladies 
Temple, Louisville, Ky. 

August 12, 1979 Visited Grand Lodge of Indiana. 

August 13, 1879 Visited Carthagenia Camp No. 2. 

August 1 6, 1879 Attended Charity Lodge Anniversary, 
Frankfort, Ky. 

August 1 8, 1879 Called a special session of the Grand 
Camp at Cincinnati, O. ; knighted forty-seven. 

August 19, 1879 Banner presentation, Smith Lodge 
No. i, Cincinnati, O. 

August 20, 1879 Special session Grand Camp, Cincin 
nati, O. ; Knighted thirty. 

September n, 1879 Left Louisville for Shreveport, La. ; 
arrived i5th. 

September 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 1879 Remained at 
Shreveport; assisted by Grand Master S. M. Todd, of Texas, 


organized a camp, conferred first, second, and third degrees, 
lectured, attended anniversary of lodge and temple and 
parade of the Order. 

September 22, 1879 Visited St. Louis, Mo. ; met the 
brothers and sisters in mass ; had a pleasant interchange of 
sentiment; escorted to a grand entertainment given by the 
G. U. O. O. F. 

September 23, 1879 Visited Evansville, Ind. ; Knighted 
twenty-three, organized and installed the officers. 

September 24, 1879 Visited Covington, Ky., organized 
David Camp No. 6, and installed the officers. 

September 26, 1879 Visited Cincinnati, O., organized 
and installed the officers of Belle Camp. 

October 6, 1870 Visited Garrison No. i. 

October 22, 1879 Received a dispatch of sad intelligence 
of the death of S. M. Todd, Grand Master of Texas. 

October 30, 1879 Met Committee on Camp Tactics and 
completed the work. 

November 8, 1879 Met mass meeting of U. B. F. 
lodges, Louisville, Ky. 

November 18, 1879 Visited Zion Temple No. i. 

December 9, 1879 Visited Temple No. 4, Louisville, Ky. 

December 10, 1879 Visited Garrison No. i. 

January 5, 1880 Installed officers for St. James Lodge 
and St. Mary s Temple, Louisville, Ky. 

January 16, 1880 Installed officers for St. Peter s Lodge 
No. 22. 

January 13, 1880 Installed officers for Star of the West 
Temple No. 13, Sister Vina Harris, Princess; presented with 
a sword by the officers, which was the first sword made for 
the Order of K. of F. 

February 18, 1880 Visited Garrison No. i. 

February 27, 1880 Visited Star of the West Temple No. 

T 3- 

March 3, 1880 Installed officers for Deborah Temple No. 
28, and initiated; installed officers for Garrison Camp No. i. 

March 19, 1880 Visited Chicago, 111., and organized a 
temple of seventy-three members. 

May 29, 1880 Visited Indianapolis, Ind. 


The closing scenes of this National Grand Lodge relieved 
us of a series of duties that had devolved upon us for twelve 
years or more, from secretary of a subordinate lodge to Grand 
Master of State and National Grand Master. We were grat 
ified to know that we had the applause of the Order, and that 
we had been faithful in the performance of our duties ; our 
financial affairs had been scrupulously observed, and every 
thing accounted for in our dealings with the different depart 
ments. In their complimentary resolutions we had conferred 
upon us the title of Honorary Membership in the Order of 
the United Brothers of Friendship, which shall ever be ap 

Though relieved of a great responsibility, we had premo 
nitions of something greater weighing upon us. Three days 
after adjournment, we were caused to mourn the loss of our 
beloved companion, suddenly taken off by heart trouble. 
Her counsel had been of the greatest service to us in matters 
pertaining to the management of our affairs. She was one 
of the early regalia makers, and many members patronized 
her for her neatness and promptness in her work. We have 
lost a loving wife and Christian mother. Six children mourn 
her loss. Our prayer to God is that they may copy her 
Christian example, and endeavor to meet her in that " house 
not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

The grand parade by the Order was witnessed by thou 
sands of citizens and visitors from the surrounding country. 
The first competitive drill between our Knighthood took 
place at the Fair Grounds. Three camps, Belle, of Cincin 
nati, O., David, of Covington, Ky., and Garrison, of Louis 
ville, Ky., entered. The drill was contested by Belle and 
Garrison, Belle being the winner of the prize, a sword, the 
first ever made for a colored organization. They retained it 


until the sitting of the National Grand Camp at Louisville, 
Ky. , 1892, when it was presented to the original owner, 
P.N.G.C. W. H. Gibson, Sr., by Wm. Smith, P. G. M., 
representing Belle Camp, Cincinnati, O. 



The establishment of temples among the female portion 
of our families and other well disposed females has worked a 
great revolution in the communities wherever established. 
Our first effort of organizing after we returned from St. Louis 
was here in the city of Louisville. One of the oldest female 
benevolent societies, after learning of our intentions, peti 
tioned us and reorganized under our charter, Sister Polly 
Mosby first Princess. Others soon followed, and the result 
in our city is twelve temples, and in other portions of the 
State equally as many. We have also established two tem 
ples in Indianapolis, Ind. , two in New Albany, Ind., one in 
Jeffersonville, Ind., and one in Huntsville, Ala.; and we 
have visited and instructed others. The membership of 
these temples are yet increasing. Some of them are pre 
sided over by women of marked ability for government, 
while others have shown weakness; but with the code of 
laws put into their hands for their guidance and a council 
for appealed cases, all things considered, it has been a suc 
cess. Thousands of women have been gathered into the 
folds of the society that otherwise would have been left to 
wander unprotected through the world without a brother s 
care. Hence, we have advised this convention of ladies of 
the time of our National meeting so that we might become 
acquainted as a family, and that the Brotherhood and Sister- 

Miss C. E. SCULL, 

N. G. SEC. S. M. T. 


Nashville, Tenn. 
N. G. P. 


hood of. the different States might be brought face to face 
and our several wants and necessities made known more 
successfully than by correspondence. 

The code of laws governing the female part of our Order 
was delayed and was not issued for at least six months after 
the minutes and degree books were out. Our apology for 
this is that we had the manuscript ready in part, but had not 
the means to pay the printer, and as we deemed the degree 
books of the greatest importance to the Order we attended 
to them first. We succeeded in having them printed and 
distributed, and but a few copies remain ; we would rec 
ommend that the Committee on Constitution and By-laws 
revise and have a new edition published. 

The number of male members of a temple is limited to 
three. We have carefully watched the workings of that por 
tion of the system, and it is our opinion that three are suffi 
cient, for the reason that we have a male department where 
gentlemen can exercise their love for the Order without 
intruding upon the ladies, and those three are only there for 
a specific purpose. 


The first Convention of the Ladies Temple convened in 
Quinn Chapel A. M. E. Church, Walnut Street, in 1878, 
as no hall could be obtained of suitable capacity to accom 
modate the great number of sister delegates present. 

Bro. J. T. Amos, Deputy National Grand Master, called 
the Convention to order, followed by the appointment of 
Rev. A. Walters, of Indiana, to act as Chaplain. 

Hymn "Jesus, Great Shepherd," was sung, Mrs. Mary 
V. Smith presiding as organist. 

The first chapter of Esther was selected for the scripture 


The welcome address was delivered by W. H. Gibson, 
National Grand Master. 

Secretaries Rev. E. W. S. Hammond and Sister Mar 
garet Finley, of Evansville, Ind. 

Committee on Credentials Sisters Laura Hamilton, Ken 
tucky; Sarah F. Hart, Indiana; P. White, Illinois; J. H. 

Taylor, Tennessee; Owsley, Missouri; Patsie Waddy, 

Arkansas; L. Taylor, Louisiana; O. Thomas, Texas; J. H. 
Rector, Missouri, at large. 

During the absence of the Committee the Convention 
was addressed by the following brethren : Charles Asbury, 
J. T. Amos, A. Walters, Sister P. Hart, Allen, Indiana ; 
C. H. Tandy, O. H. Webb, Missouri; R. Nichols, S. M. 
Todd, Texas; A. W. Kern, Arkansas; J. H. Taylor, Ken 
tucky; M. Finley, White, and Rev. E. W. S. Hammond. 

The Committee on Credentials returned delegates from 
the following temples: (For names of delegates see min 
utes). Chapman No. 19, Star of the West No. 13, Tallevate 
No. 7, St. Martin No. 8, Esther No. 4, St. Rose No. 17, 
Zion No. i, Zion No. 20, Temple No. 27, Deborah No. 28, 
St. Mary No. 35, South Carrollton No. 39, Eastern Star No. 
2i, Mary Magdalene No. 33, Queen Esther No. 24, Union No. 
n, Good Shepherdess No. 16, Rebecca No. 31, Rutt No. 22, 
Covington No. 6, United Sisters of Friendship No. 4, Venus 
Star No. 37, Star No. 18, St. Mary No. 2, Olive Branch No. 
29, Star of Esther No. 30, Star of Carthage No. 9, Adelia No. 
36, Grace No. 42, St. Francis No. 10, Kentucky; Mexico 
No. i, Boonville No. 2, Friendship No. 29, Elizabeth No. 
3, Rockport No. 4, Hannibal No. 4, Scott No. 15, Missouri; 
St. Mary s No. 2, Deborah No. 3, Golden Rule No. 4, Mt. 
Carmel No. i, Star No. 6, St. Mary No. 7, Golden No. 5, 
Star of Esther No. 30, Indiana; St. Paul No. i, Arkansas. 



Pursuant to a call the Ladies Temples of the city of Lou 
isville met in mass convention in the brothers hall, at 4 
o clock P. M., W. H. Gibson, National Grand Master, pre 
siding, J. H. Rector, Past Deputy National Grand Master, 
and the present and past officers being present. J. S. Mc- 
Leod was appointed Secretary. 

The object of the meeting was stated by the chairman, 
which was to instruct the sisters in the work, and confer 
upon them the second degree, by the authority of the Na 
tional Grand Lodge. 

Sister J. H. Taylor was chosen by the National Grand 
Master to take the chair as Most Worthy Princess, to open 
the temple, to exemplify and make uniform the existing 
work, in order that differences might be compared, which 
was done, after the necessary officers were appointed. The 
work was commended by the National Grand Master, and 
Bro. J. H. Rector, of Missouri, was requested to give the 
opening ceremonies of Missouri Temples, which he did, and 
was also commended by the National Grand Master, who 
stated that the few technical differences could be readily 

Rev. E. W. S. Hammonds and F. D. Morton addressed 
the ladies on the present condition and possible future of 
the organization. Their remarks were very impressive and 
well received. 

Sister Vina Harris, M. W. P., of Western Star Temple; 
Sister J. H. Taylor, M. W. P., of Temple No. 16; Sister Tal- 
bot, M. W. P., of Temple No. 25; Sister Gaddy, of Temple 
No. 28, made short and pointed addresses, assuring the 
brethren of their continued sisterly confidence and regard. 


Thus closed the First Grand Session of the Sisters of the 
Mysterious Ten (U. B. F.), with forty-six temples repre 
sented and ninety-two delegates and visiting sisters from all 
the city temples. 

The ladies were entertained with a Kentucky hospitality 
such as is common to Kentuckians. 

Indianapolis was named for the next assembly. 

The Temple Sisters gave a picnic at Central Park, and a 
grand review was held by the National Grand Officers, which 
was witnessed by a large concourse of citizens. 

APOLIS, JULY 17, 1880. 

The Second Session of the Sisters of the Mysterious Ten 
was largely attended, business of importance transacted 
ritualistic work, conferring degrees, and lectures in the new 
work. Sisters Hart, Finley, Robert, and Hamilton dis 
tinguished themselves as proficients in their offices. The 
ladies accompanied the parade in carriages. The banquet 
at the Exposition building was tastefully prepared and the 
guests had a very enjoyable time. 



The necessity of an insurance department connected with 
the Order had been discussed at every general meeting since 
the organization of the Kentucky State Grand Lodge, and 
various forms had been suggested. The National Grand 
Master had recommended it in all of his reports. At this 
session of the National Grand Lodge Bro. F. D. Morton, of 
the Standing Committee, offered a plan thought to be plain 
and feasible. 


Cincinnati, O. 


Cincinnati, O. 


On motion of J. H. Rector, of Missouri, the matter of 
insurance was placed in the hands of a special committee, 
composed of Bros. Morton, Lawson, Baxter, Gibson, and 
Fitzbutler. The committee drafted a constitution, naming 
Louisville, Ky., as its headquarters. An act of incorpora 
tion was obtained, the incorporators being F. D. Morton, 
Esq., W. H. Lawson, Esq., and Dr. H. Fitzbutler. 

Board of Management F. D. Morton, President; W. H. 
Lawson, Vice President; W. H. Gibson, Treasurer; Dr. H. 
Fitzbutler, Secretary; T. S. Baxter, Assistant Secretary. 

The management issued policies to the membership and 
a very bright prospect loomed up before us for two years. 
Our report at the Cincinnati meeting of the National Grand 
Lodge was encouraging, but in the third year a difficulty be 
tween the secretary and policy-holders caused consider 
able confusion, and in consequence of this our progress 
was somewhat impeded. A change of officers was the result 
of this affair. For one year we were endeavoring to settle 
the difficulty. At the National Grand Lodge at Galveston a 
review of the matter was placed in charge of a committee 
and properly adjusted, and the management placed in the 
hands of the following officers: W. H. Gibson, President; 
W. T. Peyton, Secretary; J. W. Hillman, Treasurer, with 
power to appoint sub-committees in the several States to act 
as agents. A new impetus was given to the Mutual Aid As 
sociation, a number of new policies issued, and a consider 
able sum paid to deceased members. 

For four years the management of the Mutual Aid depart 
ment was conducted by the above named officers. Their 
biennial reports were submitted, and received the approval 
of the Order. There were no deficiences during their term 
of office. There was a marked improvement, new policies 
being issued, and the assessments of old claimants met. 


At the session held at St. Louis, Mo., July, 1888, a new 
management was elected as follows : Dr. Burney, of New 
Albany, Ind., President; E. W. Marshall, of Louisville, 
Ky., Secretary; French, of Louisville, Ky., Treasurer. 

[NOTE The State Mutual Aid Insurance seems to be superseding 
the National. They take up less territory, and are better managed. 
The reports of several States are quite an improvement on the former 
plan, and as soon as every member of the Order is enrolled on the 
insurance plan, and policies obtained, the results will be such as will 
make our Order all that the most sanguine could wish, and the relief 
to our dependent families will be an hundred fold.] 



FRIDAY, July 5, 1878. 

At this session of the National Grand Lodge the following 
resolution was offered by C. H. Tandy and R. C. Fox : 

Resolved, That we recommend the establishing of the 
Knights of Friendship in all States composing the National 
compact of the United Brothers of Friendship. 

By A. Walters and Chas. Asbury, as a substitute for the 
resolution of C. H. Tandy and R. C. Fox: 

WHEREAS, As there is a Brotherhood of Knights of 
Friendship in the city of St. Louis, recognized by said State 
Grand Lodge as such ; and 

WHEREAS, The other Grand Lodges are not aware of the 
fact that the National Grand Lodge has not acknowledged it 
as such ; be it 

Resolved, That this Grand Lodge approve it as being of a 
higher degree of United Brothers of Friendship, and that the 
National Grand Lodge do recognize the Knights of Friendship 
of Missouri as the fourth degree of United Brothers of Friend 


Resolved, That the said degree of Knight be given to the 
Grand Master of each and every State, and that he be in 
structed to give the same to subordinate Masters under his 

The resolutions were tabled by a vote of fifty-one to five. 
By Dr. H. Fitzbutler : 

Resolved, That this National Grand Lodge do hereby 
establish the degree of " Knights of Friendship" as the 
fourth degree of the Order, and recommend the same to the 
subordinate lodges of the United Brothers of Friendship 
throughout the jurisdiction of this Order. 

Lost by substitution. 

By Thos. W. Johnson, of Ohio, as a substitute for the 
whole : 

Resolved, That a committee of one member from each 
State here represented be appointed by the chair to compose 
or generate the degree of Knighthood. 

Adopted, and the following committee appointed : 

Knights Degree Chas. Asbury, Chairman; J. H. Tay 
lor, J. H. Jones, R. Toney, S. Johnson, A. W. Kern, S. 
M. Todd, E. W. S. Hammond, R. Christian, J. H. Rector, 
and F. Washington. 

The degree, as composed or generated by said committee, 
was conferred on the delegates gratis at 9 o clock p. M., 
July 5, 1878. 

TUESDAY, July 9, 1878. 

A meeting of the select committee appointed by the 
National Grand Lodge was held at the hall on the corner of 
Ninth and Market streets for the purpose of electing officers 
preparatory to the organization of a National Grand Camp, 
Knights of Friendship. W. H. Gibson was elected Chair- 


man of the preliminary meeting with J. S. McLeod as Sec 

Nominations for office of National Knight Commander 
being next in order, W. H. Gibson, E. W. Hammond, and 
J. H. Rector were nominated. W. H. Gibson was elected 
on the third ballot, and, on motion, his election was made 

The following officers were elected : E. W. S. Ham 
mond, N. G. S. K. C. ; J. H. Rector, N. G. J. K. C. ; 
J. S. McLeod, N. G. K. R. ; J. W. Hillman, N. G. K. W. ; S. 
M. Todd, N. G. K. C. of G. ; R. C. Fox, ist N. G. K. G. ; 
F. D. Morton, 2 d N. G. K. G. ; Chas. Bartlett, N. G. K. 
D. ; J. H. Taylor, N. G. K. P. 

The National Grand Camp being properly organized, the 
officers-elect were installed and camp opened in due form 
with a solemn and impressive ceremony. 

Resolutions offered : 

Resolved, That the N. G. K. C., N. G. S. K. C., and 
N. G. J. K. C. shall be empowered to grant a warrant to 
open a camp of Knights of Friendship to any ten members 
of the United Brothers of Friendship having the third degree, 
and being in good standing, on their petition and the recom 
mendation of the Master and Secretary, with the seal of the 
lodge affixed. 

Resolved, That the aforesaid officers of the National Grand 
Camp are hereby authorized to agree upon and have printed 
blank warrants, with the proper emblems thereon, and the 
fee for issuing said warrants shall be $5, which shall be paid 
into the National Grand Treasury. 

Resolved, That all past and present officers of the National 
Grand Lodge U. B. F. shall be entitled to admission as mem 
bers of the National Grand Camp of Knights of Friendship 
on payment of three (3) dollars membership fee. 

Resolved, That all members of this National Grand Camp, 
while in good standing, shall be considered honorary mem- 


P. N. G. C. 


Louisville, Ky. 


bers of all subordinate camps established by its authority and 
under its jurisdiction. 

The Degree of Knighthood was then conferred upon the 
following named brethren, and they were declared to be 
knights at large of the Order: J. Montgomery, J. T. Hud 
son, and E. W. Marshall, of No. i; J. Gaddy, F. H. 
Antle, and H. W. Lewis, of No. 12; W. Day and H. C. 
Parker, of No. 21; W. H. Jones and R. Letcher, of No. 22; 
L. L. Fox, of No. 32; W. L. Johnson, Stepney Ray, and 
G. Murfrie, of No. 41 ; Isaac Curtis and T. Thomas, of No. 
45; W. H. Warley and M. Green, of No. 47; J. W. Sherley 
and Wm. Coleman, of No. 50; C. S. Jackson, of No. 52; 
G. Hood and A. Slaughter, of No. 54. 

[NOTE The introduction of this degree into the Order, with its 
splendid uniform and drill exercises, gave to the young men of the 
Order new vigor, life, and animation. It has added very consider 
ably to our processions and grand street parades, and the competitive 
drills have won the applause of the people and the press. The most 
noted camps are Garrison, Belle, and David, of Kentucky. The Cap 
tain General, W. Lewis Johnson, has immortalized himself as a drill 
master. The camps under his command move like clock work, and 
many are the trophies won from the Gulf to the Lakes.] 



L. H. Williams, elected August, 1876, at Louisville, Ky. , 
successor to Grand Master W. H. Gibson, Sr. Grand Mas 
ter Williams served but one term. He was a bright young 
man and promised to advance the interests of the Order. 
His first step was to resign his occupation (a blacksmith by 
trade), and travel as an organizer. At the expiration of his 
term the Grand Lodge preferred charges against him and he 
was expelled after a trial of several days duration. He 



finally made his mark, becoming a minister of the gospel 
and dying beloved and respected by the societies and the 
community in which he lived. 

T. S. Baxter, successor to Grand Master Williams, was 
elected in 1877 at Mt. Sterling, Ky. Grand Master Baxter 
ranks with the fathers of the Order. He was in the first 
State Convention, and first Grand Secretary for Kentucky. 
He served four successive terms and organized many lodges 
and temples in this State and Tennessee. He has made 
many sacrifices for the interest of the Order, and has held 
many positions in State and National assemblies with profit 
and credit. 

W. H. Lawson, successor to Grand Master Baxter, was 
elected in 1882 and served two terms. Grand Master Law- 
son s fame has gone abroad as one of the fathers and organ 
izers of the Order. He is a charter member and a gen 
eral dispenser of U. B. F. literature. He has served in all 
positions of importance, and, from all appearances, is des 
tined to be of considerable service to the Order in his de 
clining years. 

J. W. Woolfolk, successor to Grand Master Lawson, was 
elected in 1885. Grand Master Woolfork, of Frankfort, Ky., 

ranks with the early and earnest workers. He served 

terms and traveled extensively throughout the State, organiz 
ing a large number of lodges and temples. His annual re 
ports show executive ability. He stands at the head of the 
list of legislators, as many of our laws are the production of 
his brain. He is the author of our code of laws the Digest. 
He has filled many important positions in the State and 
National meetings, and seldom fails to be present. 

E. W. Glass, successor to Grand Master Woolfolk. 
Grand Master Glass administration was a clean one, as 


he is noted for his business qualities. He had the support 
of his Grand Officers. His report compares favorably with 
his predecessors. He is popular as a politician, having been 
elected jailer of his county. He is known as a philanthro 
pist in his vicinity, and by his influence many have sought 
membership in our Order. 

W. A. Gains, of Kentucky, successor to Grand Master 
Glass. Grand Master Gains ranks among the popular young 
men of the Order. He has made a successful Grand Officer, 
has traveled the State about as thoroughly as any of his pre 
decessors, and has wrought the lodges and temples up to 
great proficiency in discipline and in their financial rela 
tions. To his effort, be it said, the success of the Orphans 
Home, thus far, is attributed. The notes were due and no 
money to meet them. He rallied the State, and Kentucky 
has met the obligations, otherwise we should have failed 
with the thousands of failures that have occurred during the 
panic. He has force of character, and seems to know where 
and when to strike for success. His general deportment is 
such as to command the respect of all true brothers and 
sisters of the Order. We should not be surprised to see him 
occupy the National chair at some future day. His term of 
1894-95 has been one of many perplexities, but he seems to 
be equal to the task. 

E. W. Marshall, Secretary of the State of Kentucky and 
Past Assistant National Secretary, has been one of the most 
conspicuous officers of the Grand Lodge for years. His un 
tiring zeal and honesty and prompt attention to business has 
endeared him to the entire Order. His accounts are such 
as will always bear the closest scrutiny. His interest and 
support to the State Grand Master in the Orphans Home 
affairs command the admiration of the membership at large. 


The following eloquent speakers have addressed the Order 
of United Brothers of Friendship, of Louisville, Ky. : Hon. 
Peter H. Clark, Rev. Grafton H. Graham, Rev. Geo. W. 
Bryant, Hon. Morris Chester, Rev. E. S. W. Hammond, 
Rev. Lucket, Rev. Dr. E. Tyree, Rev. Dr. J. Abbey, Rev. 
Anderson, Rev. J. W. Asbury. 


Grand Master Chas. Asbury was one of the promoters of 
the Order in the southern portion of this State. He was be 
loved and respected by the members of the lodges and tem 
ples. He was elected Grand Master continuously, from 
year to year, until his death. His loss to the Order will 
long be felt, as his presence in the National Grand Lodge 
was always pleasant. 


Grand Master P. F. Hill stands prominent in this State 
as an organizer. The Order received many accessions dur 
ing his administration. His difficulty with the National 
Grand Master caused a division in the State, but the Chicago 
meeting restored him, and he stands to-day a faithful worker 
and advocate of the Order. Our progress in Mississippi, 
Kansas, New York, and a portion of Alabama is due largely 
to his untiring efforts. 

Grand Master Wm. Porter, successor to P. F. Hill, is 
really the hero of Tennessee. He has the force of character 
that draws men to him. His honesty of purpose qualifies 
him for the position of Grand Master. He has re-united the 
scattering forces that had ceased to act under Bro. Hill s 
supervision, and all seem now to be moving on to prosperity. 

The Tenth Annual Session of the Grand Lodge of this 
State has clothed itself with honor and credit to the entire 


Order. It being the Centennial Year of the State, Grand 
Master Hill and his aids have mapped out a plan to give the 
United Brothers of Friendship a prestige that will immortal 
ize the Order in Tennessee and throughout the United States 
as a colored organization. Financial arrangements by con 
tributions and other means instituted in order to make it a 
success ; headquarters established in Nashville for six months, 
also a reception headquarters for the United Brothers of 
Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten from every 
quarter of our domain ; a Grand Temple for the State or 
ganized; an endowment fund established; a committee ap 
pointed to select and purchase a Widows and Orphans 
Home. This programme, successfully executed, will make 
the Order in Tennessee excelsior. J. Thomas Turner, the 
ever active Grand Secretary and Assistant National Grand 
Knight Recorder, and Bros. Hill and Porter, form a trio 
from which we shall look for wonderful results. 


Past Grand Master Tandy, the father of the Order in 
Missouri, is extensively known throughout our jurisdiction. 
He has given much time and attention to the advancement 
and building up of the Order. He has been a conspicuous 
figure in all of her councils, both State and National, and 
was our first Deputy National Grand Master. Missouri s 
history is incomplete without the name of C. H. Tandy. In 
the First National Convention of the United Brothers of 
Friendship in 1875, ne ^ * n tne city f Louisville, Ky., he 
represented his State and did much toward the organization 
of the National Grand Lodge, which was fully established in 
his own State in 1876. J. H. Rector, his colleague, was 
also an active worker in that memorable event. 


Missouri has furnished a galaxy of stars in our firmament : 
Bros. Webb, Jones, and Bartlett, the first Grand Masters, 
were revered by the Brotherhood. Rev. T. H. Phillips, with 
his burning eloquence, always aroused the National Grand 
Lodge members to eulogistic praise and applause. Rev. Wyatt 
Scott, his colleague, the impartial and urbane, is noted for 
his parliamentary points of order. A. B. Moore, the schol 
arly Grand Master, has left his imprint, and it will not be 
effaced during the existence of the Order. It was under his 
administration that the history of the Order in Missouri was 
ordered, and codified by that very excellent Secretary, W. 
N. Brent, whose minutes of our Grand sessions are so re 
plete with general information. The Missouri minutes of 
1890 should be in the hands of every Grand Officer. Through 
Missouri our Kansas work has received much attention. 


Grand Master Bish controlled the State for several years 
and promised favorable results, but unfortunately he became 
involved in a law suit with Mt. Hope Temple. The case 
was brought to the notice of the National Grand Lodge for 
two sessions, with instructions given, but he failed to obey 
them, and he was finally expelled at the St. Louis meeting. 

Chicago is the headquarters of the Order in Illinois. 
The Sisters of the Mysterious Ten are the most numerous. 
The temples are composed of a very intelligent class of 
ladies, and they are doing much good for the Order. 

The male forces are not so strong, as our opposition comes 
from the various male organizations in the State. We are in 
want of a good male organizer for that city. Since the ac 
cession of Drs. McGee and Jones we hope for a revival in 
the male department. 



Past Grand Master Wm. Smith ranks among the leading 
organizers of our Order. For about twenty years he has 
faithfully represented the United Brothers of Friendship 
from Smith Lodge No. i. The Order has grown to immense 
proportions, until the leading cities of the State have lodges 
and temples organized, with some of the best and most intel 
ligent citizens. His work among the camps deserves especial 
attention. Ohio s roster contains the names of Prof. Max 
well, O. P. Benjamin, Dehart, Ayres, and Linthecome. 

W. T. Linthecome, a member of Rising Star Lodge No. 
6, and Knight Recorder of Belle Camp No. i, U. B. F. , is 
one of the prominent and ardent workers of the Order. Bro. 
Linthecome is properly the originator of the insurance or 
endowment policy, introduced at the State Grand Lodge 
that convened in Cincinnati, August, 1895. 

In his appeal to that Grand Body for the endowment 
policy we quote his remarks, that no doubt reached the hearts 
of all who heard him: "To have so elaborate funerals as 
we usually do, and then afterwards visiting the home of the 
deceased, our eyes beholding sights most pitiable to behold, 
and our ears arrested with the touching cry, Mamma, is 
there no bread? and the answer comes No, from the sur 
vivors of one who has spent his life in the Order, and his 
interment was one of grandeur. Ah ! had part of the money 
that was spent on his or her funeral been bequeathed to the 
family, it would have reflected honor and credit upon that 
brother or sister lodge, and also the Order of U. B. F." 

This appeal, after a lengthy discussion, had its desired 
effect, for it was, by resolution, 


Resolved, That the United Brothers of Friendship and 
Sisters of the Mysterious Ten have and adopt an Insurance 
or Endowment Policy. 

Resolved, That said policy shall go into effect immediately 
upon its passage at said Grand Lodge session. 

The plan is plain and simple. The leading resolution is 
as follows : 

Resolved, That the Board shall pay to the deceased mem 
ber s survivors twenty-five cents per head for every financial 
member in the State of Ohio reported at the last quarter, 
last third month. 

The officers were elected and all the necessary equip 
ments for this department provided. Prof. H. J. Dehart is 
President, and the department is now running in good order, 
with Bro. Linthecome, Secretary. 


Grand Master Robinson, a highly respected brother, has 
worked ardently to build up the Order, and has held honor 
able positions in the National Grand Lodge. The recent 
sitting of the National Grand Lodge, which was held in the 
State house, reflects credit upon him, and shows what in 
fluence he has with the officials of his State. 


Among the early workers of the State was Bro. Dear- 
masey, who succeeded in organizing a lodge, temple, and 
camp at Shrevesport. Grand Master Green, deceased, was 
an earnest worker, and established the Order in other parts 
of the State. 


Sister Foster, formerly of Chicago, 111., Mount Hope Tem 
ple, organized a temple in Denver, and threw to the breeze 


of the far West our work. She represented her temple at 
Little Rock, July, 1894. 


Organized under the administration of National Grand 
Master F. D. Morton, and has been represented by the Rev. 
Jehu Holliday, now Bishop of the A. M. E. Zion Church. 


Was organized under the administration of National 
Grand Master Collins by P. F. Hill, Organizer, and the late 
Rev. John L. Swears ; also Canada. 


Organized under the administration of Dr. W. T. Pey 
ton ; also Liberia, Africa. 



The history of the work of our first National Grand 
Master, under the organization of the Second Epoch having 
been given, we will review his successors. 

Frederick Douglass Morton, second National Grand Mas 
ter, elected at Indianapolis, Ind., July 6, 1880. Bro. Mor 
ton has been an earnest worker in the Order. He was the 
leader of his delegation to the National Convention at St. 
Louis that organized the National Grand Lodge. His telling 
speeches in favor of a union of all the lodges was replete 
with logical reasoning, and they had the desired effect. At 
the first National Grand Lodge, at Louisville, in 1878, his 
services rendered in that Grand Body convinced us that he 
was the coming young man that would do honor to the 


Order if placed in the Grand Master s chair. His orations 
at Louisville and Indianapolis were received with the highest 
applause. He accepted the honor conferred with a firm 
determination to add new laurels to what had been achieved 
by his predecessor, and in order to accomplish his aim he 
resigned a lucrative position in the public schools of Evans- 
ville for one year in order to travel and organize lodges and 
temples. The sacrifice proved to be a great one to him, but 
his object was to improve the Order in all of its branches 
and introduce it into States where it had not yet been known. 
He was successful in that respect, and many lodges and 
temples were received under his administration and new 
States added to the roll. We regret that we have not his 
biennial report, that we might quote from it some interesting 
details of his work, which would add greatly to the historical 
sketches of the Order. Unfortunately, after being turned 
over to the National Grand Secretary, at Cincinnati, O., it 
is claimed that the entire minutes of that session were lost. 

Bro. Morton was elected a second term at Cincinnati, O., 
July, 1882. It was at this session that the Order realized 
the sacrifice that the National Grand Master had made dur 
ing his term of office after having resigned his position at a 
good salary. The office and labor of National Grand Master 
did not remunerate him for the sacrifice, and he was there 
fore loser by hundreds of dollars, consequently his second 
term was not as brilliant as his first, for the reason that he 
had to return to his occupation and devote less time to the 

At this session he recommended the degrees of the Royal 
Household for the Ladies, Junvenile Department, and Past 
Master s Council. These departments have been organized 
and are in good working order. The Insurance and Mutual Aid 


Society was organized under his administration. The labors 
of National Grand Master F. D. Morton will compare favor 
ably with his cotemporaries. His second term closed at 
Galveston, Texas ; it was a stormy, though interesting ses 

W. H. Lawson, third National Grand Master, one of 
the founders and charter members of the Order, the suc 
cessor to F. D. Morton, was elected National Grand Mas 
ter August i, 1884, at Galveston, Texas. Brother Law- 
son has been known to the United Brothers of Friendship 
from its organization, through the first and second epochs, 
and now receives the exaltation of his brethren. It will 
only be a sketch of Bro. Lawson s work that we shall write, 
for it would take more space than we can afford in this his 

Bro. Lawson occupied the position of artist for the Order, 
being the regalia manufacturer, banner maker, and general 
decorator of the Order for years. He did all the work, but 
as the Order increased and became numerous its patron 
age was solicited by colored and white artists ; and be it 
known, that thousands of dollars are reaped annually from 
our coffers. There is not a position in the Order that Bro. 
Lawson has not filled. His ability is acknowledged by the 
entire Brotherhood. 

At the Galveston meeting one of the most important 
duties were assigned to him, that of chairman of the ritual 
istic work and the codifying of our laws. Without a nickel 
he went at the work, and involved himself to the amount of 
seven hundred dollars or more, causing him much embarrass 
ment and loss of property. The work was approved and is 
now the standard work of the Order. He served one term 
as National Grand Master. It was under his administration 


that the Order was carried into Michigan, Kansas, and 
Canada. Bro. Lawson s labors will ever be a standing 
monument to his fame in the Order. 

Bro. R. G. Collins, successor to W. H. Lawson, was 
elected July 24, 1886, at Memphis, Tenn. Bro. Collins be 
longs to that noble band of brothers from the Lone Star 
State a State of vast resourcess a State that is only second 
in number of lodges. This State, whose territory is so ex 
tensive, with its large population of colored people, has con 
tributed to the Order of United Brothers of Friendship some 
of her most intelligent citizens, male and female, of which 
Bro. Collins is a true type. Grand Master Collins served 
one term, and his biennial report is replete with valuable 
suggestions for the betterment of the Order. Financial em 
barrassments seemed to have met him at the beginning of his 
administration, but if his views are adopted his successor 
may not have the same to encounter. It may be proper to 
remark just here, that twelve years of experience with the 
workings of this Grand Body should have, by this time, com 
pleted a perfect system of finance ; in fact, the system 
that we have, or the laws governing them, if enforced, would 
produce better results. We have the ability, we have the 
numerical strength to move mountains (so to speak), but it 
does seem that we are deficient in executive force. We 
agree with Grand Master Collins, that our laws must be en 
forced more rigidly in order to be financially successful. 

Dr. W. T. Peyton s election to the National Grand Master s 
chair was another step in the advance. His position as an 
educator gave hopes for an administration far in the lead of 
his predecessors. His ambition for those honors and his 
qualifications to fulfill them was a sufficient guarantee for his 
success. His term began with the three-year system, adopted 


at St. Louis, which gave him an advantage, allowing 
time to formulate plans and become thoroughly acquainted 
with the wants and usages of the Order. His first term 
ended at Chicago in 1891. His reports were received and 
adopted. He succeeded himself for another term. Under 
his administration the Orphans Home was recommended 
and purchased on terms that are easy, and will be, when 
completed, an honor to the Order and to those worthy breth 
ren in whose care the management has been intrusted. 

During his second term, petitions have been received 
from our fatherland Africa, across the sea for admission 
to our Order; also from the West Indies communications 
have been received. Under Dr. Peyton s administration the 
financial department of the Order shows vast improvement, 
the heavy debts that had accrued under several administra 
tions having been canceled. The Widow and Orphans 
Home property was acquired under his second term, and bids 
fair to be a successful effort. The following are quotations 
from his annual address : 

In the early part of the administration s career, by the 
consent of the State Grand Lodge I set forth a National 
Thanksgiving Day. The thought seemed well founded and 
has proven a great benefit to the Order. You must bear in 
mind that when we last met, the cry of our creditors was 
loud in our ears and is not yet silenced. The National 
Grand Secretary and myself have each a financial report 
which shows our present status. Dear brethren, we must 
provide for a better insurance and must establish the Or 
phans Home, so nobly introduced by my loving friend and 
brother predecessor, R. G. Collins, of Texas. My visit to 
Ohio, Kentucky, Texas, Tennessee, Indiana, and Chicago 
are among the happiest periods of my life, and the many 
acts of kindness showered upon me by the brave Texans, 
the brilliant Buckeyes, the whole-souled Hoosiers, the Ten- 


nesseeans, Kentuckians, and those of Chicago, can never be 
erased from my memory, and will be told my children, thus 
making dear to them the names United Brothers of Friend 
ship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten. May 15, 1891, I 
received and accepted, with great reluctance, the resigna 
tion of Grand Master White, and recognized as his succes 
sor the Deputy, Bro. W. F. Bledsoe, of Marshall, Texas. 
By request, Bro. Isaac Curtis was appointed National Grand 
Organizer, to fill the term. The Order has been established 
in Kansas and strengthened in New York and Pennsylvania. 
I recommend that the Sunday next after Easter be the legal 
Thanksgiving Day of the Order. Further, that the National 
Grand Master be empowered to appoint a committee of three, 
with power to act in purchasing or erecting a National Home. 
I present the offer of the Centralia Land Association, offering 
a site for a home. I further recommend the publishing of a 
hand-book of the Order, showing its true origin and designs. 
I further recommend that the Mutual Aid Association be ap 
plied to States not having a satisfactory Mutual Aid Associa 
tion, in the same manner as it is conducted in the State of 
Missouri ; that this applies to States and Territories, but only 
to those joining the lodges after the passage of this law. 

J. Chavis, of Illinois, read the following proposal for Or 
phans Home : 

WHEREAS, The contemplated Orphans Home means the 
founding of an institution for the protection, care, and edu 
cation of the sons and daughters of United Brothers of 
Friendship, who have been unfortunately deprived of that 
parental care so essential to the early training of men and 
women for usefulness in life ; and 

WHEREAS, Facilities for education and political protection 
can best be secured in the State of Illinois; and 

WHEREAS, A single member of this noble and independ 
ent Order of ours, in the person of Walker Wilkinson, has 
agreed to deed to this Grand Lodge, or its authorities, fifty 
acres of Illinois freesoil, on the C. V. & C. R. R., in the 


county of Alexander, and State of Illinois, for the site of 
said institution ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the National Grand Lodge accept the 
above proposition and select the site for the Orphans Home 
on said fifty acres of land, in the county of Alexander, and 
State of Illinois. 


As created by the following Compiling Committee, ap 
pointed by the National Grand Lodge, at a meeting held in 
the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, July 17 to 21, 1882: W. H. 
Lawson, G. M., Ky, Chairman; J. J. Norris, Pa. ; W. A. 
Burney, D. G. M., Ind. ; W. H. Coleman, G. M., Ohio; J. 
E. Bish, G. S., 111.; Chas. Bartlett, G. M., Mo.; R. Law- 
son, G. M., Ark.; A. L. Scott, Tenn. ; R. H. Day, Texas. 

Revised and published by the following Ritualistic Com 
mittee appointed by the National Grand Lodge at a meeting 
held in the city of Galveston, Texas, July 28 to August 2, 
1884: W. H. Lawson, W. H. Gibson, W. T. Peyton, and 
T. S. Baxter. 

The Past Masters Council, an annex to the Knighthood, 
has added interest to the membership as a door to the 
Knighthood and honors for services rendered. 

The Royal Household adds beauty and grandeur to the 
Ladies Temple degrees. Their Royal Court and splendid 
equipment is the crowning point of the Mysterious Ten. 

Great interest is being manifested in the Juvenile Depart 
ment by the mothers of the Order. It fills our hearts with 
gratitude when we behold the army of children being trained 
for usefulness by the mothers and sisters of the temples. 
Thousands have been gathered in since its organization. 




The National Grand Lodge was called to order at 2 o clock 
p. M., in the State House, National Grand Master W. T. Pey 
ton in the chair. A large and respectful audience of ladies 
and gentlemen, citizens of Little Rock, and delegations of 
the Order filled the house. Address of welcome by Bro. 
Bradford, of Little Rock, response by National Grand Mas 
ter, and short addresses followed by Judge Gibbs, of Little 
Rock; W. H. Gibson and W. H. Lawson, of Ky. ; Wm. 
Porter, of Tenn. After a very pleasant interchange of feel 
ing among the members, the meeting adjourned to meet at 
9 o clock A. M. on Tuesday. 

At night the Temple Sisters gave a reception to the visit 
ing delegates at the U. B. F. Hall. It was a very enjoyable 
feast of good things, such as revive the inner man. The 
citizens of Little Rock vied with each other in their efforts 
to care for us while their guest. 

The business of the Grand Lodge was considerably re 
tarded by a very unpleasant feeling that existed between the 
delegation from Kentucky and the National Grand Master 
in regard to the purchase of the Widows and Orphans Home. 
Committees were appointed to investigate the whole affair, 
and after a thorough examination the National Grand Lodge 
referred the whole matter to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky 
for settlement. (See National Grand Lodge minutes). 

ARK., JULY, 1894. 

Grand Princess Mrs. Dr. Georgia Henderson called the 
temple to order. Divine blessing was invoked by the Grand 

P. F. HILL, 






Chaplain. The routine business of the Grand Temple was 
then proceeded with. 

The delegation was a very large one. The ladies were 
tastefully attired and attracted considerable attention through 
out the community. Many wives and daughters of the male 
members accompanied them, and the presence of the ladies 
gave inspiration to the Grand Assembly. Mrs. Dr. Georgia 
Henderson, the Grand Princess, was re-elected for the fifth 
term. She seems to possess all of those qualities really 
necessary for that exalted position. Her demeanor is of a 
lovely bearing; she is scholarly, and withal a Christian. 
She has won the affections of all the Temple Sisters. 

The Temple Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, of Little Rock, 
have made an impression that time will not erase. 

The colored citizens of Little Rock are a business people. 
Their enterprise attracted the attention of their visitors ; for 
amid the tortures and distress chronicled from day to day in 
the South, they seem to go right along as though nothing had 
happened. Their educational facilities are fair. They have 
good churches, and all are well attended. The colored trades 
men are patronized, also the professions. There are many 
farmers, who have a large proportion of colored salesmen 
vending their products with the same tact and skill as their 
white fellow citizens. 

CAGO, ILL., JULY, 1891. 

William Lloyd Garrison Camp No. i, of Louisville, hav 
ing just arrived in fatigue uniform, was introduced to the 
Grand Lodge by W. A. Gains, Grand Master of Kentucky, 
as follows : 

l Worthy Grand Master, Past Grand Masters, Officers and 
Delegates I have the extreme pleasure of introducing to you 



the first camp that was ever formed in defense of the grand 
and glorious honor of this great Order, and bear in mind, if 
you please, that it has at no time ever faltered or shrunk 
from the performance of any duty; and we guarantee you 
that this valiant band of Knights of Friendship is still stand 
ing in defense of the sacred principles of our Order, and are 
a living illustration that men of color have the capacity to 
conceive and the ability to perpetuate a great organization 
for the benefit of mankind, and the presence of this camp 
here to-day is an assurance that you will be protected, if 
necessary, at the point of the sword." 

National Grand Master Peyton said : 

^Members of the National Grand Lodge You have before 
you William Lloyd Garrison Camp, named in honor of the 
immortal friend of freedom. In those dark days of our ex 
perience, when there was no light ahead, when all seemed 
gloomy for our fathers and mothers, William Lloyd Gar 
rison went forth in the path of right and duty, amid a storm 
of opposition, until he finally triumphed in the name of God 
and humanity ; and so this knightly band of brothers, bear 
ing his revered name, has raised the banner of our Order 
in honor of his memory. It is the first of our Order that 
trod the streets of Cincinnati, that marched through the dust 
of Indianapolis, and walked like men of war through the 
thoroughfares of Galveston, on the borders of the Gulf, all 
in honor of the United Brothers of Friendship. When this 
camp was requested to come to this city by the officers of 
the National Grand Lodge, to demonstrate the military per 
fection of the Order, it generously consented to pay its own 
fare. These Knights of Friendship are here at a personal 
cost to themselves of $600, to further the underlying prin 
ciples of our Order Justice, Mercy, and Truth and to 
bear aloft our banner in this great city. We ask, and we are 
sure, that the brothers and sisters of Chicago will treat them 
as they deserve, and in recognition of the compliment in 
calling upon the National Grand Lodge, we will now give 
them the grand honors." 



W. L. Johnson, Past National Knight Commander and 
Captain General of the Valiant Knights of Friendship. This 
division of the Order is indebted largely to V. K. Johnson 
for the high attainments in the manual of drill, the perfec 
tion arrived at, and eulogies expressed on every occasion 
when brought before the public. 

At the organization of Garrison Camp, when a drill mas 
ter was to be selected, the National Commander offered Bro. 
W. L. Johnson for the position. He had some experience 
in the art of drilling, from the fact that he was connected 
with the military of our city and had excellent opportunities 
for learning. The selection proved a fitting one, so much 
so that from Drill Master he advanced to Knight Com 
mander, National Knight Commander, and Captain General. 
He has been in office ever since the organization of the 
camps. Garrison has won many prizes and trophies by his 
skillful maneuverings. Two other camps have been organ 
ized, getting a portion of their members from Garrison. 

Commanders J. H. Rector, W. L. Johnson, Wm. 
Porter, Jesse Montgomery, Bryant Luster. 


Louisville, Ky., July, 1878, organized; Cincinnati, O., 
August, 1879, extra session for work, Knighted 77; Indian 
apolis, Ind., July, 1880; Cincinnati, O., July, 1882; Louis 
ville, Ky., extra session, 1883; Galveston, Tex., July, 1884; 
Memphis, Tenn., July, 1885; Memphis, Tenn., Grand Ses- 
sion,i886; Little Rock, Ark., July, 1887; St. Louis, Mo., 
1888; Chicago, 111., 1891; Little Rock, Ark., 1894; St. 
Louis, 1896. 



Garrison visited Indianapolis in 1880 and contested for a 
prize with Belle, of Cincinnati, O. ; Belle, of Cincinnati, 
O., visited Indianapolis in 1880; David, of Covington, Ky., 
visited Indianapolis in 1880; Garrison visited St. Louis in 
1877; Garrison visited Galveston, Tex., in 1884; Garrison 
and Belle, of Kentucky, visited Indianapolis in 1888; Belle, 
of Cincinnati, visited Louisville in 1888; Garrison visited 
Chicago in 1891; Belle, of Cincinnati, visited Chicago in 
1891; Morris Henderson, of Chicago, visited Memphis, 
Tenn., in 1891; Garrison visited Cincinnati in 1893. 

The National Grand Camp met at Louisville, Ky. , in 
1892. The following camps were present: Winchester 
Camp, Kentucky; Mt. Sterling Camp, Kentucky; Quinn 
Camp, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Lexington Camp, Kentucky ; 
Carthage Camp, Jeffersonville, Ind. ; Belle Camp, Cincin 
nati, O. ; David Camp, Covington, Ky. ; Pride of Kentucky 
Camp, Louisville; Belle Camp, Kentucky; Garrison Camp, 
Kentucky, and representatives from Little Rock, Ark., and 
Fort Worth, Texas. 

The largest prize ever offered at any of our grand drills 
was presented by the three camps of Louisville, Ky. the 
sum of $500. Winchester Camp, Kentucky, captured the 
first prize, $300; Logan Camp, Lexington, Ky. , second prize, 
and Belle Camp, Cincinnati, O., third prize of $100 each. 

1888 A contest a,t Winchester, Ky. , between Logan 
Camp, of Lexington, Ky ; David Camp, of Covington, Ky. , 
and Belle Camp, of Louisville, Ky. 

1889 A contest at Maysville, Ky. , between Logan Camp, 
of Lexington, Ky. ; Golden Eagle Camp, of Winchester, 
Ky., and Belle Camp, of Louisville, Ky. 


1890 A contest at Indianapolis, Ind. National Drill- 
between Garrison Camp, Golden Eagle Camp, Winchester, 
Ky. ; Logan Camp, Lexington, Ky. ; Belle Camp, Cincin 
nati, O., and Belle Camp No. 2, Louisville, Ky. 

1891 A contest at Lexington, Ky., between Golden 
Eagle Camp, Winchester, Ky. ; Belle Camp, Louisville, Ky., 
and Maysville Camp, Maysville, Ky. 

Belle Camp No. 2, K. F., of Louisville, Ky., was organ 
ized on October 8, 1888, the following being the first elective 
officers : Lee Mattingly, K. C. ; John Hyde, K. R. ; Elijah 
Mitchell, S. K. ; F. W. Kittrell, Jr. K. ; Dudley Mills, Cap 
tain Guards, and L. Hutchinson, Captain General. 

The first contest, at Winchester, Ky., between Lexington, 
Covington, and Belle camps, was won by Belle Camp, the 
prize amounting to $50. 

The next contest was at Maysville, Ky. , between Lexing 
ton, Winchester, and Belle camps. Winchester received 
first prize, the amount being $60, and Belle Camp second, $45. 

The next contest was at Lexington, Ky. , in 1891, between 
Winchester, Maysville, and Belle camps. First prize, $75, 
won by Belle Camp ; second prize, by Winchester Camp, $25. 

At Indianapolis, Ind., the National Drill between Cin 
cinnati, Garrison No. i, Winchester, Lexington, Belle of 
Cincinnati, and Belle of Louisville, took place in July, 1890. 
First prize, $150, was won by Belle Camp No. 2, of Ken 
tucky; Garrison second, Winchester third. 

The organization began with forty-two members. The 
following are the present officers: W. H. Smith, K. C. ; F. 
VV. Kittrell, S. K. ; Theodore Terry, J. K. ; B. F. Hays, K. 
R. ; Oliver Arnold, Captain Guards, and L. J. Hutchinson, 
Captain General. Financial members at this date, thirty- 


Never lost but one prize since organization in any contest 
the camp ever entered. 

Pride of Kentucky Camp. At the organization of this 
camp Valiant Knight Nathaniel Mathews was elected Knight 
Commander. This camp has a fine corps of members; they 
are well drilled, and have not had the same experience as 
Garrison and Belle camps, but with Knight Commander 
Mathews and his strict discipline they will vie with the other 
camps in the manual of arms. Every officer and member 
has the confidence of the Commander, and they can not fail 
to succeed. Valiant Knight Mathews has a large experience, 
and he has been in the Order since the first convention, in 
1875. A. L. Jones, Commander. 

Belle Camp, of Cincinnati, O., was present at Garfield s 
funeral, which took place at Cincinnati, O., September, 
1 88 1. Thousands of military and civic societies participated. 
Belle Camp, of Cincinnati, O., and David Camp, of Cov- 
ington, Ky. , made a handsome display in their beautiful 
regulations. They were assigned a prominent position in 
the line, with a band in front of them. They were com 
manded by V. K. Tom Johnson, with the following Grand 
Camp officers in full regalia: W. H. Gibson, Sr. , N. G. C. ; 
J. C. McLoud, G. R. ; J. W. Hillman, G. W. ; Wm. Smith, 
G. S. B. 



Our trip to Texas was fraught with forebodings, the his 
tory of the State being so noted for cow-boys and an element 
of outlaws that has terrified travelers from the days of San 
Jacinto and Gen. Sam Houston to and after the Civil War, 


but duty called and "we must obey." At Texarkana we 
had our first mishap. We boarded the wrong train, through 
the ignorance of a porter or his meanness, there being only 
two trains on the road, morning and evening, and were 
dumped out at a saw-mill in a forest, to remain from 9 o clock 
A. M. to 6 o clock P. M. We had an engagement that night 
at Sherman, but failed, of course, to meet it. The work 
men at the saw-mill viewed us with a critic s eye, but further 
than that they did not molest us. It was the most lonesome 
day that we ever spent. The train arrived, and we boarded 
it and left for our destination. We were received by Rev. 
H. Read, visited the temple and lodge, instructed them and 
left in company with Bro. Reed. 

The scenery was grand, and the prairie afforded much 
food for reflection. In all the places we visited there, we 
found many thrifty colored Americans, their cabins and 
farms showing thrift and enterprise. Some of them had 
good churches and schools, especially at Dallas, Austin, 
Houston, and Galveston. We visited an institution at Mar 
shall, supported by the Episcopalians, a gentleman from the 
West Indies being its principal. 

We received the same treatment on the trains as our 
people are accustomed to in the South ; we shared with the 
emigrants. Our train was crowded, and at night the cries 
of the children kept us awake. The foreign languages and 
costumes added considerably to the novelty. We ventured 
out to the hotels and lunch stands; at several we were 
accommodated and at others refused. At Herne we called 
for a cup of coffee, but the waiter must have been deaf and 
dumb, as he never answered nor opened his mouth, so I 
supposed he was a negro-hater, and I concluded to "let 
Ephraim alone." 


At Austin we had a grand time with the brethren, lectur 
ing and setting things right generally. We visited the Capi 
tol, a beautiful stone building. The brethren had our pho 
tograph taken as a token of their esteem. 

At Houston we were on the track of Foster, as he was in 
the city. A committee was sent to inform him of our ar 
rival, and a meeting was arranged for 9 o clock. But lo ! 
at that hour the bird had flown to San Antonio. We had a 
grand time at Houston with the lodge and temple, and then 
left for Galveston. 

We arrived safely in Galveston, and went out in the after 
noon with Bro. Moses Morris to view the city. A rain came 
down upon us, and it continued from Tuesday until Thurs 
day night. We were water-bound. The water was up to 
the floors of the street-cars and the inhabitants were floating 
around in skiffs. I began to think of some mode of escape, 
but I was surrounded by the gulf and the bay and the river 
and a three-mile trestle to cross to get to land. Friday was 
clear, the waters had subsided, and we had a glorious time. 
Saturday we left, delighted with our trip. 

The meeting of the National Grand Lodge in Galveston 
July, 1884, left some pleasing reminiscences which will ever 
be remembered by the visitors to the Lone Star State, espe 
cially those from the more northern States and the delegates 
who had never been so far south, consequently, they were look 
ing for strange sights. The delegations from Ohio, Indiana, 
Kentucky, and Illinois met at Cairo, and the Tennessee and Ar 
kansas delegation met at Milan junction. We were introduced 
by Grand Master Hill, and soon became as one family. We 
found the brethren kind and affable, and the ladies graceful 
and dignified. The most elite of the Anglo-race could not 
have displayed more refinement than this delegation. A 


special conductor was appointed to accompany us the entire 
route. Telegraphic communications were forwarded to the 
hotels and restaurants for meals. In the State of Texas we 
were accommodated at some hotels and at others we were 
denied the privilege. Our train was closely scrutinized by 
the Texans and inquiries made if we were emigrants, and 
to what locality, etc. The trip was a lengthy one on account 
of wrecks ahead of us. We left Louisville on Thursday and 
arrived at Galveston on Monday night. On Sunday even 
ing we missed connection at a junction and we camped on 
the suburbs of a small town. We were accommodated at 
the hotel with supper and breakfast. The landlord and his 
family served us as though we were white. In camp we en 
tertained ourselves with songs and speech-making. Nearly 
all the inhabitants of the little village came out to our meet 
ing. Late at night a few cow-boys annoyed us by shooting 
around our camp, and caused us to put out sentinels com 
posed of the members of Garrison Camp under Captain 
General Johnson. We left on Monday at 10 A. M. and 
arrived at Galveston at 9 P. M. Our arrival was greeted 
with cheers by a waiting assembly of citizens and members 
of the Order. We were kindly conducted to our lodgings, 
and received the hospitality of the citizens during our stay. 
The scenery was interesting. A view of the Gulf of Mexico, 
the strand and bathings on the sea shore, the gathering of 
shells by our ladies during the morning strolls, all added to 
our pleasure. Galveston turned out in force on the day of 
the parade. Thousands thronged the streets to witness the 
splendid cortege. The impression made will be a lasting 
one. All the delegates returned delighted with the trip ex 
cept two, who lingered behind to continue the stroll longer 
on the beach, which finally ended in a wedding in the Lone 


Star State between Hon. J. W. Woolfolk and a lady of 
Frankfort, Ky. 

The meeting of the Grand Temple was largely attended 
and considerable business transacted by the ladies. A reso 
lution passed and offered to the National Grand Lodge for ap 
proval, asking for a united Grand Lodge, composed of male 
and female, with the right to vote for Grand Officers, created 
considerable debate and confusion. The resolution was 
tabled, and a counter resolution passed to discontinue the 
Grand Temple and the presence of ladies at our Grand 

The meeting adjourned, with many regrets by the friends 
of the ladies. 

At the morning session, after the reading of the minutes, 
Father Gibson asked permission to make a few remarks, 
which was granted. He reviewed the proceedings relating 
to the ladies, and showed the bad effect that it would produce 
in the Order. He reviewed the temples from their organ 
izations and showed the good they had done. In many cities 
they had been the forerunners in organizing, when men stood 
aloof from us. He stated that in nearly every organization 
in the country, State and international, females were recog 
nized; they traveled far and near to build up the various in 
stitutions and help raise fallen humanity. His time was up, 
but he was permitted to proceed. After his speech the reso 
lution was reconsidered by a very large majority, and the 
Grand Temple has survived the gloom of that evening s pro 
ceedings, and since then thousands of females have been 
added to the roll of membership. 


At Little Rock we were entertained by Bro. Kern, and 
the brethren and sisters made it very pleasant for us. We 


visited schools, churches, and the various enterprises of our 
people. We found them in business and patronizing each 
other, also in the City Council and other departments of the 


The United Brothers of Friendship banner was first un 
furled at Shrevesport, in the northwestern part of the State. 
Our visit to that city was received with all the honors due 
our position in the Order. We were met at the depot by a 
committee of brothers and sisters and escorted to Bro. John 
son s, and royally treated for one week. We had a large 
amount of work to perform, such as initiations in the several 
degrees, knighthood, and temple work. We dispatched for 
Grand Master Todd, of Galveston, Texas, to come over and 
assist us. He came immediately, and we labored together 
and put Louisiana in working order. We were dined by 
the citizens of Shrevesport in a manner that we shall not 
forget. After our labors were over, the Order had a grand 
parade and a meeting in the hall, where speaking and music 
enlivened the large audience. The principal business of the 
city is the cotton trade, of which our people are largely in 
terested. The colored representative of that district, Sena 
tor Harper, visited us and showed great admiration for our 
Order and its workings. 

S. M. Todd, Grand Master of Texas, related some thrill 
ing adventures while organizing lodges in his State on several 
occasions. He was mobbed and cruelly treated by the out 
laws that inhabit that section of country. On one occasion, 
he went into a store to purchase a handkerchief; he asked 
for the article that he wanted, and was told that such was for 
white people bandanas were for negroes and said that he 
was a northern negro putting on airs. There was a party 


sitting around the store, and they immediately began to twit 
him about his clothing; his beaver hat was obnoxious to 
them ; they swore that he was from New York and that he 
should deliver a greenback speech. They placed a box in 
the center of the store, made him mount it, pointed their 
pistols at him, and then shot at his hat, several balls passing 
through it; they also forced him to drink from a jug of 
whisky. He was so alarmed and frightened that he fell 
prostrate to the floor, and an old colored lady, who saw the 
treatment, begged them not to kill him. They promised her 
that if she would take him away they would spare him. 
They took his satchel, ripped it open, and discovered that he 
was a Grand Master; they taunted him, and warned him 
never to be caught in that neighborhood again. 

At another time, while holding a meeting, the lodge was 
assailed by a klan and several were injured; some jumped 
from the windows; others were beaten by the mob. These 
are some of the trials incident to organizing in those districts 
where outlaws rule the community. But amid it all, we have, 
through the determined efforts of such men as Todd, Van- 
buren, Collins, Mitchell, and White, made Texas one of our 

Marshall, Texas, was reached on Saturday night, and our 
train proceeded no further. We laid over all day Sunday 
and formed some acquaintances. They had no lodge there, 
but a few members from Jefferson, about sixteen miles dis 
tant, upon hearing that I was there, sent Bro. Hernado, who 
drove over in his wagon, requesting me to visit Jefferson 
members ; but for fear of missing the train at night I did 
not go. I attended church at n A. M., and at 3 P. M. wor 
shiped in the court-house with an A. M. E. congregation, 
who had no church building. I escaped the klan of which 


Bro. Todd related, but I met a chinch klan that annoyed me 
terribly on Saturday night. 


Our trip to Huntsville was an interesting one, from the 
fact that it was one of those States where negro supremacy 
was supposed to have the ascendency at that time. On our 
arrival we were kindly received by Bro. Roberts and the 
members of lodge and temple. They were organized, but 
had not the secret work. We conferred degrees and in 
stalled officers. They had a street parade of a very creditable 
showing, public speaking at the Fair Grounds, and for the 
first time I had the pleasure of seeing the Juvenile Brothers 
drill a squad of boys from the ages of twelve to sixteen 
years, numbering about twenty-five equipped and uniformed 
in Revolutionary style, commanded by a drill master that 
surprised me and many others for their precision and knowl 
edge of military tactics. They received many eulogies and 
applauds for their movements. 

The colored people of Huntsville were moving along as 
well as could be expected, they were doing business accord 
ing to their means, and had investments in real estate, gro 
ceries, etc. The schools and churches were improving. We 
formed the acquaintance of Professors Council, Goodloe, and 
Lowery the former was principal of the public school, and 
he was highly appreciated by the people. Prof. Lowery, 
who has gained a wide reputation for his silk culture and ex 
hibits throughout the United States, has a large following 
among his people. He run for the legislature in his dis 
trict, but was defeated by a small majority. We were highly 
delighted with a visit to Miss Ross, the organist and pianist 
of the Methodist Church. Miss Ross is one of the most 


brilliant musicians of the South, and a native Kentuckian. 
Her father, Rev. Liberty Ross, was an intimate associate of 
ours, and pastor of Quinn Chapel, Louisville, Ky. , during 
the war. Sunday we visited the churches and Sunday- 
schools, and all had large congregations. 

We were indebted to Bro. Lawless for a ride upon the 
mountains that surround Huntsville, from whose summit the 
States of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Georgia are seen. That 
trip was a memorable one. We were up above the clouds, 
apparently, and a terrible storm was raging beneath us 
thunder roared, lightning played its antics as vivid as we have 
ever witnessed finally we were in it and nearly drowned, 
our wagon being filled with water and our body thoroughly 
drenched, yet we enjoyed our visit and desired to stay longer 
in Alabama, for our treatment was the most hospitable. 


Received in Chicago by Bros. I. Walters and Alex. Tay 
lors. Having planted our Order firmly on the Gulf, we were 
delighted with the idea of reaching from the Gulf on the south, 
to the Lakes on the north. Clubs were formed for a lodge 
and temple. Everything being prepared we organized them, 
and unfurled the banner of the United Brothers of Friend 
ship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten in Chicago. A grand 
reception was given at the close, and we were the recipients 
of a pair of gold eye-glasses by the ladies of Mount Hope 

Our second visit to Chicago was equally as pleasant. 
Another temple was organized, and composed of the younger 
class of females, and as intelligent and promising as any that 
we have met anywhere in our travels. 



Sister Hart, a faithful sister of St. Mary s Temple No. 2, 
of Louisville, located at Indianapolis, and through her in 
fluence we were enabled to enroll and organize the banner 
temple of the State. Through the influence of the sisters 
we were soon called again to organize a lodge and another 
temple. We had many friends in that city whose acquaint 
ance we formed during the war, and they rallied to our 
standard, and our success was all that the heart could wish. 
Evansville, the home of the three United Brothers of Friend 
ship giants of the State, Bros. Asbury, Morton, and Wash 
ington, gave us a grand reception. The lodges and temples 
there were up to the highest standard and proficiency of the 
Order. New Albany and Jeffersonville have received many 
visits from us, being on the border of Kentucky. We have 
almost considered them in our bailiwick. They have three 
temples, one camp, and two lodges there. We granted them 
charters and set them to work. They present a fine appear 
ance when assembled, and have an intelligent corps of 

The Grand Lodge of Indiana is composed of good ma 
terial, and their officers, Bros. Asbury, Morton, Washington, 
and Birney, reinforced by Prof. C. S. Pritchard, Seymour, 
Parks, and Harris, are competent. They have formerly met 
in joint session, male and female, as in Ohio, but they have 
increased in numbers and finance, so that each division can 
meet separately. We have spent some very pleasant hours in 
their sessions. . 

Our visit to their last session in 1893 convinced us of the 
demand for a history of our organization. The National 
Grand Master was present and witnessed their expression in 


that direction. We consulted and resolved to issue one. 
The educational facilities of the State are excellent, and we 
have a number of the cultured of the State composing their 


Cincinnati, the Queen City of the West, had a noble 
representative in the person of Bro. Wm. Smith, of Friend 
ship Lodge No. i, of Louisville. Having removed from our 
city and located in Cincinnati, his desire was to see a branch 
of the Order established in Ohio. We corresponded, and 
soon a pro tern, lodge was in existence. Our services for 
organizing and granting them a charter was asked and we 
responded. Berkley Temple, our female representative, re 
ceived its name from Sister Amanda Berkley, a very estima 
ble lady, and the most efficient worker in the organization 
of that temple. We granted them a charter and set them to 
work, with a very efficient corps of officers. 

At Dayton we were represented in the persons of Bro. 
A. W. Jackson and wife, who worked so assiduously to 
organize a pro tern, body of United Brothers of Friendship 
and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten. They were successful, 
and Dayton can boast of an organization second to no other 
in the State. We visited them, and were highly delighted 
with the composition of that body of ladies and gentlemen. 

We have visited the Grand Lodge of Ohio on several oc 
casions, and we can truly say that it is a representative body, 
though deviating somewhat from our general rules in that 
they meet conjointly or as a consolidated body, lodges and 
temples doing their annual business in the same session. 
Circumstances over which they had no control was the cause 
of this digression. Our cause, though, has lost nothing by 
this seeming violation ; for it is a fact, that we found in 


Cincinnati, (). 

A. j. DEHART, 



organizing our Order, especially in northern cities, that the 
females were first to receive it. Other orders had preceded 
us and claiming connection with organizations whose founders 
were white men and with a history antedating hundreds of 
years. The men of those cities were slow to welcome an 
order whose founders were Negroes, and largely of the late- 
bondsmen. For several years our greatest support was de 
rived from the women of Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. In 
dianapolis, Cincinnati, and Chicago furnished the nucleus, 
but by persistent efforts, with efficient officers, we can boast 
of a strong organization of intelligent men and women as 
any order extant. 

The first Grand Master of Ohio, Wm. Smith, deserves 
great credit for his untiring zeal in the interests of the Order. 
Having never been married, he keeps a suite of parlors for 
the accommodation of the local and visiting brothers. On 
several occasions visiting camps have been the recipients of 
his hospitality. The services of Grand Master Smith will 
ever be appreciated by the U. B. F. and S. M. T. of Ohio, 
and the entire brotherhood. Bro. Smith was ably supported 
by Bros. T. W. Johnson, Chas. Burkley, Fitzhugh, Belle, and 
other faithful brothers. Two among the most prominent, 
Bros. Belle, First Knight Commander of Belle Camp, for 
whom it was named, and Knight Commander Wood, have 
finished their work, and have gone to reap their reward 
in that far better land of the blest. Belle Camp mourns the 
loss of these Valiant Knights. 

This Grand Lodge has also become strong enough to 
organize and meet in separate sessions, with a Grand Tem 
ple, under W. T. Peyton s administration. 

Rev. R. C. Benjamin, Past Grand Master of Ohio, joined 
uider the administration of National Grand Master F. D. 



Morton. He has been a conspicuous worker in the Order 
for the past ten years, having served as Grand National Or 
ganizer, establishing lodges and temples in portions of Ala 
bama, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and District 
of Columbia. 

He published The Triangle, a newspaper devoted to the 
interest of the Order, at Birmingham, Ala., in the year 1892. 
This paper, we believe, aroused the interest of the Order in 
that State, notwithstanding a lodge and temple had been 
organized at Huntsville for twenty-years, and was repre 
sented at the first State Grand Lodge in Kentucky. 

The following ode was composed by him for a Thanks 
giving service : 



Tell who are they who ever stand 

Along life s rugged way, 
With pitying heart and helping hand 

Misfortune s tear to stay; 

Who from the pleadings of the poor 

Ne er turn their ear aside; 
Whose footsteps often seek the door 

Where woe and want abide. 

The generous band, who, hand in hand, 

From grey-beard to the youth, 
Have sworn they side by side will stand 

In Justice, Mercy, Truth. 

See, stretched on yonder bed of death, 

A widowed mother lies 
" My orphan babes," with struggling breath 
And faltering voice, she cries. 

"O, who your young and tender forms 

From sorrow s grasp will save, 
Or shield you from life s crushing storms 
When I am in my grave ? " 



P. G. M. OP OHIO. 


Cincinnati, O. 


Have peace, loved one, kind friends are nigh, 

Who ll guard their tender youth, 
And round them twine the hallowed tie 

Of Justice, Mercy, Truth. 

Speed on, ye S. M. T., speed on ; 

And blessings with you go, 
Still aid the widow in her need, 

And soothe the orphan s woe. 

Still by the heart-sick stranger s side, 

With words of kindness stay, 
And bid the deep and troubled tide 

Of sorrow pass away. 

And U. B. F., long may ye stand, 

The grey-beard and the youth ; 
Shoulder to shoulder, head, heart, and hand, 

In Justice, Mercy, Truth. 


Memphis. One of the grandest displays ever witnessed 
by the members of our Order was that of the Grand Temple 
banquet and celebration during the session of 1886. Grand 
Master Wm. Porter had proclaimed that his angels would 
astonish the fraternity. His sayings were verified on the 
night of the entertainment. Five hundred ladies, dressed in 
white and formed in lines of two, marched into the park 
which contained a large amphitheater. On the balcony was 
seated a military band which discoursed fine music. At the 
command of the Grand Marshal the doors were thrown open 
and the procession marched into the hall, led by the Grand 
Supporter, with staff in hand. They formed in front of the 
stage, on the lower floor, being the first division. Second 
division, Royal Household, in purple. Third division, Grand 
Princesses, in royal robes and cro\\ms decked with jewels. 
Fourth division, Third Degree members. Fifth division, 
Valiant Knights. The stage was reserved for the Grand 


Princesses and Grand Officers. The balconies were occu 
pied with the vast assembly. 

G. W. Bryant, National Grand Orator of the occasion, 
made an oration that excelled in brilliancy all others. His 
logical reasoning on the future greatness and advancement 
of the Negro race was a masterly one, and will ever be re 
membered by those who appreciate good speaking. 

Chicago s Grand Temple display was also interesting. 
The entertainment was of a different character; it consisted 
more of a literary display; music, of a classic style, essays, 
fan drills by the Juvenile Misses, and a grand promenade of 
the Grand Temple and Household in their royal robes. 
They presented a scene that is seldom witnessed by our 
people. Without these displays by the Grand Temple our 
Grand Assemblage would lose much of its interest. The 
large hall was crowded and many were turned away. The 
Grand Temple is a great institution. 


The Grand Camp was called to order at 2 o clock p. M., 
in the U. B. F. Hall. 

National Grand Commander Jesse Montgomery in the 
chair, and all the National Grand Officers in their repective 

The meeting was harmonious. The proceedings showed 
considerable improvement in the work of camps, with many 
additions. Some inconvenience was incurred by the. two 
bodies meeting at the same time, as many of the delegates 
to the National Grand Lodge were members of the Grand 
Camp. This matter was discussed, and a resolution passed 
changing the time of meeting of the Grand Camp to every 
two years, so as not to conflict with the National Grand 


Little Rock, Ark. 

N. G. C. 


N. K. R. 


Logan Camp, from Lexington, Ky., visited Little Rock, 
and entered for the prize drill. These Valiant Knights made 
a grand display. Their regulations were complete; their 
drilling was perfect ; they made the highest per cent, on the 
schedule, and won the prize. The Valiant Knights of Little 
Rock entertained the visiting knights with a grand banquet, 
and it was an enjoyable affair. 

The grand parade was witnessed by at least five thousand 
people, who cheered them as they passed in their knightly 
apparel. At night the park was crowded. Knight Com 
mander Lustre, of Little Rock, and Grand Master Robin 
son, supported by the Temple Sisters, will ever be remem 
bered for their hospitality. 


The thirty-fourth annual session was held at Covington, 
Ky., in August, 1895. Grand Master Gains sixth term. 
Upon being introduced, Hon. Rhinock, Mayor of the city, 
delivered the welcome address as follows : 

11 1 am pleased to welcome you to this city. You should 
be congratulated upon such an organization, which, I am 
informed, was organized in 1861. I believe about sixteen 
years ago, when I was a boy running around the city of 
Covington, you met here in this city. I am told Kentucky 
is the birth-place of the Order and it has grown from seven 
men to 200,000 in the United States. I am eminently 
pleased to say a few words in commendation of your execu 
tive officer and our worthy and esteemed citizen, W. A. 
Gains, a man who stands high in the esteem of the citizens 
of this city. I congratulate you upon your Orphans Home, 
for all of your acts are charitable and benevolent, and again, 
as Mayor of this city, I welcome you in an official capacity." 

These remarks were responded to by H. S. Smith, of 
Hopkinsville, in behalf of the Order. 


The session continued for three days, and was one of the 
most interesting sessions of this Grand Body. Grand Mas 
ter R. C. O. Benjamin, of Ohio, addressed the meeting, and 
also presented to the Grand Lodge an original African gavel, 
made from iron-wood, that belonged at one time to the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives at Liberia, but 
was brought to this country by the Colonization Society. 
Grand Master Gains received the gavel as a memento for 
the archives of the Order. 

The report of Grand Secretary E. W. Marshall shows 
receipts for two years, as follows: Receipts, $4,680.33; ex 
pended, $4,647.53; balance, $32.91. Of this amount 
$2,500 has been spent on the improvements of the Home. 
Thirteen hundred bushels of oats were gathered by the 
farmer this year off of seventy-five acres of land. 

For other business of importance, see Grand Lodge min 

The Grand Lodge closed with a grand parade at Coving- 
ton, Ky., and Cincinnati, O. Ten thousand visitors from 
nearly every town and city in Kentucky thronged Covington 
and Cincinnati to witness the closing scene of the Grand 
Lodge. After parading the principal streets of the two cities 
ranks were broken and the vast concourse of people pro 
ceeded to Price s Hill, where a grand promenade concert, 
speeches, and a prize drill was given by the camps. The 
procession was headed by National Grand Commander Jesse 
Montgomery and staff, mounted on chargers; Valiant Knights 
S. J. Franklin, W. L. Linthecombe, of Cincinnati, O., W. S. 
Martin, and J.K.C. W. L. Johnson, P. N. C., of Louisville, 
Ky. The present and past officers and Sisters of the Mys 
terious Ten were in carriages. Thus ended one of the grand 
est and most remarkable Grand Lodge sessions of the State. 


The following camps visited the Grand Lodge of Ken 
tucky and formed the grand parade from Covington, Ky., to 
Price s Hill, Cincinnati, O., August, 1895: Belle Camp, of 
Cincinnati, O. ; Logan Camp, of Lexington, Ky. ; Gains 
Camp, of Cynthiana, Ky. ; Belle Camp, of Louisville, Ky. ; 
Franklin Camp, of Georgetown, Ky. ; Golden Eagle Camp, 
of Winchester, Ky. ; David Camp, of Covington, Ky. ; De- 
hart Camp, of Walnut Hills, O., and Juniors, of Madison- 
ville, O. 

The thirty-fifth annual session was held at Covington, 
Ky. , in August, 1895. The instructions of the National 
Grand Lodge were carried out or confirmed by assuming the 
entire control of the Widow and Orphans Home property. 
Provisions were made for meeting these notes as they be 
came due. Assessments were made on all of the depart 
ments of the Order, and ere the next National Grand 
meeting, in July, 1897, the officers expect to have the entire 
debt eliminated. The report of the State Grand Lodge of 
1896, at Harrodsburg, is quite a luminous one, and it shows 
wonderful tact and determination in the members of the 
various departments to secure the Home to the grand old 
Order, and that united they stand in this herculean effort. 
The Secretary s report shows a financial membership of 
lodges of 3,515, temples of 3,497, and cash receipts $2,- 
884.01. Paid on the Orphanage since the close of the Grand 
Lodge of 1895, $9 6 5; balance due on the Home, $2,170.88. 


This house, purchased in 1891 by the Grand Lodge of 
Kentucky, contains two hundred and thirty-four acres, at a 
cost of six thousand dollars. It is situated on a beautiful 
tract of land, twelve miles from the city of Louisville, on the 


L. & N. R. R. It has one fine dwelling-house of six rooms, 
a smaller house, barns, stables, out-houses, and plenty of 
good water. It contains two hundred acres of cleared land 
and thirty-four acres of woods. 

The Secretary s report for 1896 to the State Grand Lodge 
is as follows : 

Stock on farm 5 cows, i calf, 2 colts, i sow, 14 hogs, 
35 hens, 15 roosters, 70 young chickens, 14 turkeys, 32 
geese, 20 ducks, 3 ricks of clover, 30 acres of corn, 100 
bushels of corn over from 1895, ^o 00 bushels of sheafed 
oats, i trial patch of tobacco, i hay rick, i truck, and a 
garden patch. 

Amount due on the property, $2,170.88; sundries, 
$908.13 total, $3,079.01. 

The Sisters State Auxiliary Board have raised and do 
nated this year for the Home $50 ; check to the Grand Lodge, 
$20 total, $70. LILLIAN B. JACKSON, Sec y. 


A remarkable coincident attending our advancement as 
an Order was the seeming neglect to procure real estate in 
the city of Louisville, after having obtained a charter in 
1868 for that purpose, and a hall to meet in exclusively our 
own, and for the accommodation of our many lodges and 
temples. For fifteen years the headquarters of the Order 
was at Ninth and Market streets (Armstrong Hall). The 
lodges and temples in the smaller cities and villages had pre 
ceded us in this direction. Thousands of dollajs were paid 
out for hall rent, yea, enough to have purchased a hall. 

Thanks are due to a few leading sisters, who, being desir 
ous that we should have a hall for our lodges and temples 
whose title should be vested in the United Brothers of 


N. G. T. S. M. T. 

Miss M. V. WEBSTER, 



Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, resolved to 
make an effort and held a number of meetings for that pur 
pose. Among those most prominent were Sisters Jane Tal- 
bot, Jane Webster, Alice Roberts, Louisa Hedges, Florence 
Norton, Hopkins, Emaline Lawson, Grooms, J. H. Taylor, 
Martha Webster, and others. From these meetings was 
organized the Joint Lodge and Temple, whose object was to 
accumulate means to build or purchase a hall. Organized 
March 25, 1886. 

Committee on Constitution and By-laws W. H. Lawson, 
W. H. Gibson, Mrs. Jane Webster, J. H. Kennedy, Mrs. 
Louisa Hedges, Mrs. Jane Talbot, Mrs. Florence Norton, 
and N. Mathews. 

A Board of Managers was appointed, supported by their 
respective lodges and temples, and a hall purchased. Each 
lodge and temple is a stockholder, purchasing as many 
shares at fifty dollars ($50) as they could afford. The lodges 
and temples moved into the building as soon as the first pay 
ment was made, paying rent to themselves and using every 
effort to meet future notes when due. So successful have 
their efforts proven that at a meeting held in July, 1895, ^ 
was resolved to purchase the adjoining property at a cost of 
four thousand dollars ($4,000). 

The " Negro Problem" is being solved by our Order, 
using the factors education, wealth, moral and Christian 


At the National Grand Lodge meeting at Chicago, 111., 
July, 1891, a proposition was offered by Prof. N. R. Harper 
to donate 200 acres of land at Centralia for a Widows and 


Orphans Home, also a proposition by Bro. A. Chavis, of 
Illinois, for a donation of fifty acres in Alexander County, 
Illinois, for the same purpose. 

A resolution was offered that a committee be appointed 
to investigate those locations of lands, etc., the committee 
to be composed of nine members of the Executive Board or 
Council the National Grand Master being a member. 

After the adjournment of the National Grand Lodge, the 
National Grand Master proceeded to select a location in the 
State of Kentucky, thirteen miles from Louisville, and pur 
chased the same in the name of the National Grand Lodge 
without the consent of the majority of the committee ap 
pointed by the National Grand Lodge. The amount of 
money necessary to meet the first note was not raised, and 
he consequently had to borrow one thousand dollars from 
the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. The second note became 
due and he applied to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, through 
her Grand Master and Secretary, for the second loan of one 
thousand dollars, as he, the representative of the National 
Grand Lodge, had failed to raise or pay any money on the 
property. They refused to loan the money of the Grand 
Lodge of Kentucky unless the deed of the property was 
transferred to that lodge, as no money was paid or raised 
from any other source. (So represented). 

The National Grand Master consented to the transfer, 
and so announced in his circular. The money was paid, the 
second note lifted, and the property deeded to the Grand 
Lodge of Kentucky. 

After this deal the National Grand Master recanted and 
endeavored to hold a claim to the property in the name of 
the National Grand Lodge. This action caused much bit 
terness and confusion between the parties, and became a 


matter of grievance before the National Grand Lodge at its 
session at Little Rock, Ark., in July, 1894. The matter 
was thoroughly investigated by a committee appointed by 
said body, and they reported the following conclusions : 

We, your special committee on National Orphans Home, 
beg leave to report that we have carefully examined the Na 
tional Grand Master s report relative to the National Or 
phans Home and the report of the Chairman of the National 
Orphans Home, Bro. W. A. Gains, and we find that the 
transactions have been irregular from beginning to end, and 
that the edicts of this most worthy National Grand Lodge 
have been ignored, and that instead of there being purchased 
a " Home" in the name of the National Grand Lodge their 
action has resulted in the purchase of a home in the name of 
the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, without the knowledge or 
consent of the Committee on Orphans Home, thereby 
thwarting the great fundamental principles of the Order to 
perpetuate the name of this most worthy National Grand 
Lodge in caring for its widows and orphans. Therefore, we 

First That the entire amount contributed by the several 
States and Territories to the fund known as the Orphans 
Home Building Fund be refunded to them, except Ken 
tucky, the National Grand Ledge issuing its papers payable 
on demand to the several Grand Lodges and lodges and tem 
ples, said paper to be receivable for all dues and taxes due, 
or to become due, the National Grand Lodge in amounts 
equal to the amount contributed ; that the Grand Lodge of 
each State make proper adjustment with their own subordi 
nate lodges and temples. 

Second That the Home, with full title, be transferred 
and confirmed to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, and that 
the State of Kentucky assume all indebtedness now out 
standing against the Home, which might be construed as a 
debt against the National Grand Lodge. 

Signed by a committee, A. B. Moore, chairman, and ten 



Sister P. N. G. A. S. of S. M. T. Powell stands prominent 
as a defender of the laws and customs of the Order. In 
1885 and 1886, when, through mismanagement and sore op 
pression, the female department was nearly disbanded, this 
sister proved the heroine for the occasion, and with the 
charter granted Mount Hope Temple in 1877, she went be 
fore the courts and contended in a suit for the right of self- 
government as a temple rights guaranteed by the charter. 
She was sustained, but other technical points were sprung on 
her, and she appealed to the National Grand Lodge for two 
sessions for the cardinal principles of Justice, Mercy, and 
Truth in her case and Mount Hope Temple. Her course 
was sustained by the National Grand Lodge. This decision 
united all the temples of that city, and the result was a united 
front at the Chicago National Grand Lodge. The Sisters of the 
Mysterious Ten distinguished themselves as the supporters of 
the Order in that city, and left lasting impressions on the 
brotherhood and visitors of their kind hospitality and Sister 
Powell s eternal fidelity to the U. B. F. and S. M. T. 

Sister Susan E. Foster, of Denver, Col., the Mother 
Pioneer of the Order of the Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, 
was originally a member of Mount Hope Temple No. i, of 
Chicago, 111. She emigrated to the far West in 1887, and 
organized a temple of S. M. T. There was no brother s 
lodge there to assist her in the work. She organized a club, 
set them to work, and they have sustained themselves with 
credit to the Order which they represent. They were repre 
sented by Sister Foster at the National Grand Temple at 
Chicago, and at the National Grand Meeting at Little Rock, 



Indianapolis, Ind. 

Evansville, Ind. 


Sister Foster writes that she is now in the act of forming 
a club of gentlemen, preparatory to establishing a male lodge 
of United Brothers of Friendship. Her prayer is for some 
official organizer to visit Denver and assist in this good work. 

This is only one of the many instances where our sisters 
have been the pioneers in cities and in States. We are in 
separably joined heart and hand to go forth through the 
world disseminating the principles of Justice, Mercy, and 


1876 W. H. Gibson, Sr., Kentucky, N. G. M.; J.T. Amos, 
Kentucky, D. N. G. M. ; E. F. Horn, Indiana, N. G. S. ; 
R. C. Fox, Kentucky, N. G. T. ; F. Washington, Indiana, 
N. G. T. ; W. B. Vanburen, Texas, N. G. T. ; E. P. Bran- 
nan, Kentucky, N. G. C. ; F. D. Morton, Indiana, N. G. L. 

1878 W. H. Gibson, Sr., Kentucky, N. G. M. ; A. W. 
Kern, Arkansas, D. N. G. M. ; E. F. Horn, Indiana, N. 
G. S. ; S. M. Todd, Texas, A. N. G. S. ; J. W. Hillman, 
Kentucky, N. G. T. ; F. D. Morton, Indiana, N. G. L. ; 
W. H. White, Kentucky, N. G. C. ; Alex. Walters, Indiana, 
N. G. M. 

1880 F. D. Morton, Indiana, N. G. M. ; C. H. Tandy, 
Missouri, D. N. G. M. ; H. Fitzbutler, Kentucky, N. G. S.; 
W. H. Mitchell, Texas, A. N. G. S. ; J. W. Hillman, Ken 
tucky, N. G. T. ; N. S. Baxter, Kentucky, N. G. L. 

1882 F. D. Morton, Indiana, N. G. M. ; C. H. Tandy, 
Missouri, D. N. G. M. ; Dr. H. Fitzbutler, Kentucky, N. 
G. S. (Minutes lost.) 

1884 W. H. Lawson, Kentucky, N. G. M. ; C. H. 
Tandy, Missouri, D. N. G. M. ; M. T. White, Texas, S. G.. 


D. ; F. C. Long, Texas, N. G. S. ; J. T. Turner, Tennes 
see, A. N. G. S. ; Win. Porter, Tennessee, N. G. T. 

1886 R. G. Collins, Texas, N. G. M. ; Dr. W. A. 
Burney, Indiana, D. N. G. M. ; A. B. Moore, Missouri, N. 
G. S. ; W. A. Gains, Kentucky, A. N. G. S. ; Wm. Porter, 
Tennessee, N. G. T. 

1888 W. T. Peyton, Kentucky, N. G. M. ; Wm. Porter, 
Tennessee, D. N. G. M. ; W. N. Brent, Missouri, N. G. S. ; 
J. T. Turner, Tennessee, A. N. G. S. ; D. A. Robinson, 
Arkansas, N. G. T. 

1891 Dr. W. T. Peyton, Kentucky, N. G. M. ; Morgan 
T. White, Texas, D. N. G. M. ; W. N. Brent, Missouri, N. 
G. S. ; J. T. Turner, Tennessee, A. N. G. S. ; D. A. Rob 
inson, Arkansas, N. G. T. ; A. J. DeHart, Ohio, N. G. O. ; 
W. O. Vance, Indiana, N. G. L. 

1894 W. N. Brent, Missouri, N. G. M. ; W. H. Leon 
ard, Kentucky, D. N. G. M. ; W. F. Gross, Texas, N. G. 
S. ; Jordan Chavis, Illinois, A. N. G. S. ; Dr. W. A. Bur 
ney, Indiana, N. G. T. 


State Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Ar 
kansas, Tennessee, Texas, Louisiana. 

Territorial Mississippi, Kansas, Alabama, Pennsylvania, 
New York, Colorado, California, Indian Territory, Canada, 
West Indies, Africa, Washington, D. C. 


Kentucky. Wm. Lloyd Garrison No. i, Louisville; Belle 
No. 2, Louisville; Douglas No. 3, Frankfort; Franklin No. 
4, Georgetown; Israel No. 5, Henderson; David No. 6, 
Covington; Woodfolk No. 7, Owensboro; Smith No. 8, 


Maysville ; Logan No. 9, Lexington; Golden Eagle No. n, 
Winchester; Gains No. 17, Cynthiana; Taylor No. 18, 
Paris; Franklin, Germantown ; Napoleon No. 19, Mt. 
Sterling; Excelsior No. 22, Paducah ; Pride of Kentucky 
No. 23, Louisville; Rob. B. Elliott, No. 24, Richmond; 
Maynard, No. 28, Danville ; Morning Star, No. 29, Bowl 
ing Green ; St. Joseph No. 30, Russellville ; Reindeer No. 
31, Anchorage. 

Arkansas. Garrison No. i, Little Rock; Good Samari 
tan No. 2, Argenta; David No. 3, Texarkana. 

Tennessee. Morris Henderson No. i, Memphis; Jackson 
No. 2, Jackson; Hill No. 3, Nashville; Blazing Star No. 4, 

Indiana. Carthagenia No. i, Jeffersonville ; Quinn No. 
3, Indianapolis; Pride No. 4, Indianapolis. 

Missouri. St. Marks No. i, St. Louis; Evening Star 
No. 4, Hannibal; Mound City No. 5, St. Louis. 

Louisiana. Dunn No. i, Shreveport; A. Lincoln No. 2, 

Texas. Todd No. i, Galveston. 

Ohio. Belle No. i, Cincinnati; Olive No. 4, Cincinnati; 
A. J. DeHart No. 5, Cincinnati, consolidated with Olive; 
Garfield No. 6, Madisonville. 

Illinois. McCullom No. 2, Chicago; Chas. Sumner No. 
5, Quincy. 


Bryant Luster, N. K. C., 109 W. Fourth Street, Little 
Rock, Ark. ; J. H. Ayres, N. K. C., Cincinnati, O. ; H. J. 
Brent, J. K. C., Winchester, Ky. ; W. H. Butler, N. K. R., 
3510 Cozens Avenue, St. Louis, Mo.; J. Thomas Turner, 
N. A. K. R., Memphis, Term.; E. W. Chenault, N. K. 


W., Lexington, Ky. ; W. H. Brown, N. C. O. G., Mem 
phis, Tenn. ; R. M. Hammonds. N. K. D., Little Rock, 
Ark.; D. L. Simms, N. K. G., Louisville, Ky. ; W. H. 
Price, ist N. G., Cincinnati, O. ; G. E. Thompson, 26. N. 
K. G., Lexington, Ky. 

Trustees W. H. Gibson, Sr., P. N. K. C., Louisville, 
Ky. ; Wm. Porter, P. N. K. C., Memphis, Tenn. ; W. L. 
Johnson, P. N. K. C., Louisville, Ky. 


A great many things have been said and published about 
the evil tendencies of societies, and we must admit that some 
of the objections and criticisms are true, but by a careful ex 
amination it will be seen that the good far excels the evil. 
Let us enumerate some of the evils. The late hours of meet 
ing is criticised because men and women are kept out too 
late at night. Our laws specify the time of meeting and ad 
journment. The answer in many cases to this breach of law 
should be condoned, from the fact that our people, in many 
instances, among the males, are teamsters and laborers of 
various kinds, and are compelled to finish up their day s 
work before they can return to their homes to prepare for 
lodge meetings ; and it is a fact, that in a majority of cases, 
the colored laborer is required to work more hours than his 
white co-laborer. Females are under the same ban. It is 
claimed by some that the churches are injured by our orders 
and societies ; members fail to perform their church vows, 
and the society is esteemed higher than the church. This 
should not be so. The Church of God should be held and 
appreciated above all other things of human inventions. 
4 Pay thy vows to the most high," says the Good Book. 
The benevolent orders receive their teachings of benevolence 


Denver, Col. 


Huntsville, Ala. 


from the church ; the church is the foundation of every good 
work. The orders and societies receive moralists into their 
ranks, while the church laws and canons require a spiritual 
confession commensurate with the teachings of the gospel of 
Christ. Our Sunday funerals are condemned and severely 
criticised by some. We would have that part of our cere 
monies moderated or curtailed, if possible. Our Sunday 
funerals, attended with bands of music, draw crowds of 
toughs and the scum of the cities following them, making 
our sad movement to the grave a day of merriment and 
mirth for those inconsiderate hoodlums. If we must bury 
our deceased on Sunday, let it be done quietly and without 

The good deeds of the United Brothers of Friendship 
are enumerated as follows : 

For thirty-six years they have been administering to the 
sick and burying the dead. 

For thirty-six years contributing to the wants of widows 
and orphans. 

For twenty-one years united a National and International 
organization, gathering in thousands who heretofore were 
destitute of the benefits that this Order confers. 

For twenty-one years bringing into close alliance the in 
telligence and superior ability of our race. 

For twenty-one years acquiring real estate and homes for 
the benefit of the Order, thereby giving it prestige and re 
spectability among the communities wherever organized. 

And lastly, contributing for the financial claims of its 
membership several millions of dollars, a record that any 
Negro order might will be proud of. 



Having been requested to publish the history of our Order, 
giving the origin and names of its founders, and the general 
progress up to date, we have assumed the task which we 
hope will be a help to those seeking this knowledge, and put 
to rest many erroneous ideas in reference to its founders. 
We have given a more eleborate account of Kentucky, the 
Mother State, from the fact that we were here, and an eye 
witness to many statements that we have made. 
Respectfully submitted in J., M., T., 






FROM THE YEAR 1847 TO 1897. 







P. N. G. M. 







Born and reared in the city of Baltimore, Md., and edu 
cated in the select schools of those days, also receiving the 
private instructions of the Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, D. D., a 
Lutheran divine, and the Rt. Rev. D. A. Payne, D. D., 
Bishop of the African Methodist Church, the writer, at an early 
age, manifested a desire to travel West. An opportunity pre 
sented itself in June, 1847. r l" ne Rev. James Harper, of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, who then had charge of 
the Fourth-street Colored Methodist Church, located on the 
corner of Fourth Avenue and Green Street, made applica 
tion for a teacher to come to Louisville and locate, as there 
was a field of labor for such an one if desirous of benefiting his 
race. After mature consideration I accepted the invitation, 
and bade farewell to kindred and friends for "My Old 
Kentucky Home." 

I arrived at Louisville, Ky. , June 21, 1847, after one 
week s journey across the Alleghany Mountains by the Na 
tional Road route in stages, the forerunner of the "iron 
horse," changing horses every ten miles., and viewing the 


picturesque scenery that had presented itself to the millions 
of travelers who had gone this way before me. This scene 
caused my imagination to reach out in wonder and amaze 
ment at the great and stupendous work of nature, and the 
possibility of these rocks and mountains fleeing away at the 
final consummation of all things. 

Arriving at Pittsburg, the head of navigation, I took a 
steamer for Cincinnati, O. I was several days on the beau 
tiful Ohio, and witnessed scenes that interested me very 
much. The coal mines on either side of the river, and the 
palatial steamers and barges heavily laden with products for 
the South, were my first lessons in this panoramic view. 

Upon arriving at Cincinnati I was kindly received at the 
residence of Mr. and Mrs. Crisup, mother and father of 
Mrs. Eliza Gordon, wife of the noted coal merchant. I 
visited Mr. and Mrs. Clark, the former a prominent barber 
in Cincinnati. Mrs. Clark, in later years, became the wife 
of Bishop D. A. Payne. 

Upon arriving in Louisville I was kindly received by the 
officers and members of the Fourth-street Church, whose 
guest I was, viz. : R. M. Lane, David Straus, Wm. Butcher, 
Levi Evans, Frederick Myers, Anthony Frazier, Walker 
Wade, Caleb Christopher, Nathan Hardin, and N. B. Rog 
ers. In addition to these, the citizens, generally, gave me a 
hearty welcome. 

Robt. M. Lane taught school on East Street, between 
Walnut and Chestnut. He was originally from Ohio. I 
associated myself with him for six months. In January, 
1848, I opened a school in the basement of the Fourth -street 
M. E. Church, situated at the corner of Fourth and Green 
streets. This move attracted considerable attention, from 
the fact that the locality was in the heart of the city. 


The theater was on the southeast corner, and the negro 
church and day school on the opposite corner. I was ad 
vised by some persons not to open the school there, as it 
would be closed by the city authorities. For a few days we 
changed front, and occupied a small church on Center 
Street, in the rear of the Fifth-street Baptist Church. It 
was occupied by the Presbyterians, Rev. Bowman, pastor; 
but through the indefatigable efforts of Rev. James Harper 
and his white friends we were permitted to teach the school 
at the church on Fourth and Green streets, with instructions 
to teach no slaves without a written permit from their master 
or mistress. Of these permits we had hundreds on file ; for 
amid the strictures of the laws and prejudices of the slave 
holders to negroes learning to read and write, there were 
other Christians (white) who did not object, and would give 
those permits. 


The writer, being a member of said church at the time of 
this occurrence, will give a sketch of its history. 

Fourth Street Colored Methodist Church (now Asbury 
Chapel) has a history that no other colored church, perhaps, 
has passed through in this State. The property was pur 
chased in 1845, at Chancery Court sale. The congregation 
was under the immediate control of the Methodist Episco 
pal Church South. Colored, ministers were appointed over 
colored congregations, with white presiding elders. Trustees 
of colored churches were white men ; also many class leaders 
were white men. At the chancery sale a question was asked 
the judge, if free colored men could not hold property in 
trust for colored congregations? He answered, "Yes, if 


they were free." They informed him that they would prefer 
colored trustees. He said if they would produce five col 
ored men he would appoint them. The following names 
were presented to the court : R. M. Lane, Wm. Butcher, 
Levi Evans, James Harper, and David Straus. The next 
important point was the drawing up of the deed, which was 
peculiarly drawn. A clause read, " Deeded to the Colored 
Methodists of Louisville, Ky. , and their successors forever;" 
a clause that has given much trouble, both to the white wing 
of the Methodist Church and the African M. E. Church. 

After the division of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 
1844, into North and South Methodists, on account of slavery, 
a large number of colored members were anxious to leave 
the Southern branch, but as their property was deeded to and 
held by the white trustees, they could not see their way clear 
to withdraw without leaving their property, which they did 
not wish to do. The congregation at Fourth Street was the 
only party prepared to enter the conflict for church freedom 
from the slaveholding power, and the peculiarity of the deed 
gave them this advantage. 

In the fall of 1848 the African M. E. Church Conference 
met at Madison, Indiana. 

Resolutions were passed by the officers and members of 
the Fourth-street Methodist Church to sever their connection 
from the white Southern Methodist Church and apply for 
membership in the African M. E. connection. A committee 
was appointed to meet in conference, viz. : Frederick Myers, 
Robert Lane, and Wm. Butcher, to present the resolutions 
asking for admission. They were received by the confer 
ence, Bishop Quinn presiding, and the officers and members 
received into full connection. Rev. James Harper was ap 
pointed elder in charge for the conference year. This bold 


secession, by a Negro church, in the heart of slavery, in the 
very city where the division of the North and South Church 
took place, and only a square from the locality of that 
memorable event of 1845, which shook the Christian de 
nominations of this country from center to circumference, 
was a striking coincident. 

The news created a sensation in Methodist circles. The 
white masters met and considered the matter, and then con 
cluded that if the negroes wished to join the A. M. E. congre 
gation that they could do so, but they would retain the prop 
erty for those who would be willing to remain in the Church 
South. So they preferred a charge against the leader of the 
movement, the Rev. James Harper, for rebellion, and cited 
him for trial. The writer was present when the summons 
was served on him. He refused to attend, stating that he 
was no longer a member of that church. However, they 
proceeded with the trial and expelled him from the church. 

On the following Sunday, the officers of the white South 
ern Church met the colored congregation at 3 o clock p. M. 
for the purpose of reorganizing with those of the congrega 
tion who wished to remain in the Church South. 

The pastor, Rev. James Harper, made a strong defense 
against their action. An eminent judge was employed to be 
present and witness the proceedings. He called their atten 
tion to the clause in the deed, reading as follows: To the 
Colored Methodists of Louisville, Ky. , and their successors 
forever." He claimed that they had no business there, and 
would enter suit against them for disturbing religious wor 
ship, for they were not colored Methodists. The pulpit 
scene was graphic. The white presiding elder ascended the 
pulpit; also the colored elder. One seized the Bible and the 
other the hymn-book. 


The colored brother read "Jesus, Great Shepherd of the 
Sheep, to Thee for help we fly," etc., which was sung with 
great power by the vast congregation. He prayed -such a 
prayer as only he could pray, with responses from all the 
members over the house. At the close, the white elder an 
nounced his text: "Servants, be obedient to your masters." 
The argument was unheeded, for they had concluded to 
come out of Egypt, though Pharaoh and his host pursued 
them. The matter was settled in the court; the decision 
sustained the colored congregation as the legal owners of the 

This was the first victory gained in the State of Kentucky 
by a colored congregation withdrawing and taking the prop 
erty with them, though it has given a precedent for several 
others in this and other States to make the effort. Several 
have been successful in this State since the war, and the free 
dom of the race declared. 

For some time this event was a matter of rejoicing among 
the colored people. A grand reception was given Bishop 
Paul Quinn on his first visit after this accession to the A. M. 
E. Church. The parsonage of the Rev. James Harper (ad 
joining the church) was the scene of a great jubilee by the 
clergy of the city and vicinity. 


The preceding events moved on smoothly until the fol 
lowing fall. The location of the church was an enviable 
one, in a business point of view, and was coveted by the 
white Masonic fraternity. It was joining property on which 
they wished to build a magnificent temple and theatre, ex 
tending the entire block. They sent a committee to the 
pastor and trustees with a proposition to purchase the church 


property. Several conferences were held, and finally an 
agreement was made by the trustees to sell the property. 
The agreement read as follows: "That the Masonic fra 
ternity agrees to purchase the property and build another 
church in lieu of the present structure. They agreed to 
locate the property within a certain boundary, viz.: not 
farther east than First Street, nor farther west than Seventh 
Street, nor farther south than Broadway, nor farther north 
than Market. Several months elapsed before a location was 
found, for the prejudice was so great against Negro churches 
in white settlements that when they learned for what purpose 
the property was wanted there would be an objection raised by 
the entire neighborhood. Finally the committee concluded 
to go beyond the boundary for a site. This resolution was 
not satisfactory to all concerned; yet the trustees consented, 
and a split or division in the church was the result. The 
first proposition to sell was drawn up under the administra 
tion of Rev. James Harper, but the succeeding conference 
removed him to New Orleans, La. Rev. Hiram R. Revels 
succeeded him, and under his administration the contract or 
first proposition was annulled. 

Harper returned to Louisville in the spring of 1849. 
The dissatisfied parties met him and related their objections 
to the deal. They had several interviews with him, which 
caused the minister in charge of the congregation (Rev. H. 
R. Revels) to charge Harper with causing a disturbance 
in his congregation. A committee of elders was called; 
Harper was tried, expelled from the connection, and pub 
lished in the papers as a refractory preacher. 

Harper called his forces together and established an inde 
pendent church. Each party were renting. The building 
was not completed during these troubles; but when it was 


each party claimed it. So bitter was the feeling, that when 
the cape-stone, with the name of the building inscribed upon 
it, was put up, the opposition took it down and broke it in 
pieces. When the church was completed, a lawsuit was 
entered for possession, and an injunction was granted against 
the African M. E. Church until the court decided the right 
of possession. The same argument was used in this case as 
in the suit with the white Southern Methodist Church; that 
the church belonged to the Colored Methodists of Louisville 
and their successors, and not to the African M. E. Church. 
The lower court so decided in favor of the Harper party. 
An appeal was taken to the Court of Appeals at Frankfort, 
Ky. The opinion of the lower court was sustained, so far as 
the deed was concerned, but as the minister, officers, 
and members had joined the A. M. E. Church under a 
protectorate, and subjected themselves to the appointing 
power of the Bishop, therefore the A. M. E. Church Con 
ference had sole control of the congregation, without the 
change of deed, and that Rev. James Harper must vacate. 
The litigation continued for several years, and a considerable 
amount was expended for court and lawyers fees. Harper 
vacated, rented a vacant church on the next block, and had 
considerable following for awhile, but the congregation be 
came dissatisfied and he removed to Baltimore, Md. His flock 
scattered and sought membership in the various churches of 
the city. So ended an unfortunate occurrence in the history 
of the A. M. E. Church in this city. 

The officers and members of the A. M. E. Church took 
possession, and Rev. Frederick Myers was appointed in 
charge. He was succeeded by some of the ablest ministers 
of the connection, such as Rev. B. L. Brooks, Rev. F. Car 
ter, Rev. J. M. Brown, Rev. John Mitchell, Rev. Knight, 


and others. Under their administration the church pros 
pered. In 1872 the church was remodeled by the Rev. J. 
C. Waters. A heavy debt accrued, the contractor sued on 
the notes, and a long litigation ensued. During these troubles 
the church burned down (supposed by an incendiary). It 
was not insured and remained without a roof for many years. 
Rev. Bartlett Taylor succeeded in rebuilding it, but for years 
it seemed a drag on the connection, with forty years of 
trouble and not yet released. The deed seems to be the 
great stumbling-block in the way. The trustees give con 
siderable trouble to the pastors, it is said, with few excep 
tions, who are sent there by the appointing power. 


The first African Methodist Church was planted in Louis 
ville, in the State of Kentucky, then a missionary point, in 
1840, by that venerable centenarian, Rev. Father David 
Smith, the members assembling from house to house, until a 
room over a stable on Main Street was obtained, and a con 
gregation formed to worship in the name of Bethel A. M. E. 
Church. It has grown to be the leading church of the con 
nection in this State, and has been pastored by the most 
distinguished ministers in the A. M. E. connection, notable 
among them being the Revs. M. M. Clark, Dr. W. R. 
Revels, Hiram Revels, Dr. G. H. Graham, H. J. Young, J. 
W. Asbury, J. Gazaway, O. P. Ross, Dr. B. F. Porter, Dr. 
Abbey, Dr. Evans Tyree, and many others of distinction. 

In the early days of its organization it was considered by 
the community as an abolition church, which carried with it 
a stigma to deter the slaves of this community from associa 
tion and affiliation with its members. The idea of an aboli 
tion church established in this city among slaves could not 


be tolerated by some slaveholders; hence they forbade their 
slaves visiting that Free Negro Church (as it was styled), 
though a few of their servants would attend. One member 
of the family of a slave-trader joined the church and attended 
regularly, and this trader had a pen in the city filled with 
slaves for the Southern market. 

Locations From the stable on Main Street to a frame on 
the corner of Eighth and Green streets, from there to Ninth 
and Walnut streets. 

In 1854, from a little frame building was erected the 
present brick. The ground was purchased by the money 
raised by the efforts of George W. Johnson, Rev. Byrd Par 
ker, and Rev. John A. Warren. The latter paid the last in 
stallment and lifted the mortgage. The brick building was 
one of the strong efforts of Willis R. Revels, who canvassed 
Indiana, Ohio, and portions of the East to raise money to 
meet the payments on the building. The Quaker Friends of 
Indiana gave liberally towards the building. They were so 
anxious to know that the money was being properly used, 
that at times they sent a committee to investigate. The de 
sire of the Quaker Friends for the education of our race 
caused Dr. Revels to promise them that a school would be 
connected with the church for educational purposes, and for 
this reason they gave more readily. 

The foundation of the new edifice was laid with some 
forebodings. The day appointed for digging the foundation 
was one of interest, as certain parties living on the same 
block had declared that a negro church should not be erected 
there a nuisance to the neighborhood but the people of 
God prayed that the work might go on in spite of every op 
position, and God heard their prayers. Friends among the 
white people aided them, and the ceremonies were performed. 


Rev. Levi Evans, who is yet alive, dug the first spade of dirt. 
The brick work of Quinn Chapel was performed by colored 
bricklayers from Lexington, Ky., Col. Bayless, a boss brick 
layer, superintending the work. The building was covered 
in, and the congregation worshiped in the basement for four 
years. The basement was dedicated by the late Bishop D. 
A. Payne (then Dr. Payne). Aaron M. Parker was the ap 
pointed pastor. A school was opened in the basement by 
W. H. Gibson, free and slave children taught slaves by 
written permits. The Quaker Friends visited the school and 
inspected the work, to see that their donations were appro 
priately applied. In 1858, Rev. Willis Miles, of New Or 
leans, La., was appointed. He was a very affable and lov 
ing pastor. After his induction into the pastorate his anxiety 
was to complete the church and move up into the auditorium. 
He called together the officers, members, and teachers of the 
Sunday-school, and they, with the pastor, mapped out a plan 
for the completion of the building. The young people of 
the church and their friends organized a literary society 
known as the Chapel Relief, whose object was to discuss 
questions pertaining to our interest and the general improve 
ment of the mind. Dr. W. R. Revels was the organizer of 
this society. Its influence was felt throughout the city, and 
by its members a large amount was raised towards meeting the 
large debts that had accumulated during the progress of the 
work and the completion of the building. At the adjourn 
ing of the Annual Conference the dedicatory services were 
performed by Bishops Quinn and Payne, Revs. W. R. Rev 
els, J. M. Brown, John Turner, Willis Miles, and others. 

The following is the roster of Quinn Chapel, A. M. E. 
Church, by succession : 

First missionary, Rev. David Smith, the centenarian; first 


pastor, Rev. Geo. W. Johnson; Revs. Byrd Parker, W. R. 
Revels, H. R. Revels, Israel Cole, John Morgan, Emanuel 
Wilkerson, John A. Warren, Aaron M. Parker, Willis Miles, 
John Turner, Page Tyler, Liberty Ross, Austin Woolfork, 
B. L. Brooks, Thos. Strother, Dr. M. M. Clark, Richard 
Bridges, H. R. Revels, Henry J. Young, Grafton H. Gra 
ham, John Asbury, John Gazaway, T. B. Caldwell, O. P. 
Ross, Dr. B. F. Porter, Levi Evans, Dr. J. Abbey, and Dr. 
Evans Tyree. 


The Center-street Church is the oldest colored Methodist 
Church in this city, and like all other colored Methodist 
churches before the war was under the ecclesiastical control 
of the Southern Methodist Episcopal Church. During the war, 
in the sixties, the members of this church applied and was re 
ceived into the Zion A. M. E. Church, and continued in said 
church for several years without a change or transfer of the 
deed of property to said Zion A. M. E. Church. An effort 
was made to secure a change in the deed by Peter Lewis, 
Jackson Burkes, and other officers and members of Zion A. 
M. E. Church, but failed, from the fact that a large number 
of its members were opposed to changing their relations to 
the white Southern Methodist Episcopal Church. This party 
was led by Rev. W. H. Miles and others. Miles afterwards 
became Bishop. 

On the loth of May, 1870, the Methodist Church South, 
in a meeting of the General Conference, passed a series of 
resolutions with reference to the religious interest of the 
colored people, who were then under the control of that 

One resolution reads as follows : "That the action of the 
last General Conference in reference to an ultimate organiza- 


tion of the colored people of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South into a separate church is complete, and therefore no 
additional legislation is necessary to the end intended. 

"Further, That we fully approve the purpose of the Bishops, 
as expressed in their address to this Conference, at an early 
day to call a general conference for our colored members to 
organize them into a separate church, as provided in the dis 

Further, That all trustees now holding church property 
for the use of our colored membership be instructed to make 
title to said property to the properly constituted trustees of 
the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church South, according 
to the discipline of said church when organized." 

The following resolution has caused considerable litiga 
tion among the colored bodies: 

" WHEREAS, Application has been made by certain parties 
for the transfer of the title to the property belonging to the 
Methodist Church South to congregations who have with 
drawn from our communion; and, whereas, we regard the 
property conveyed to our trustees, for the use of the colored 
congregations of our church, a sacred trust to be held for 
them; therefore, 

"Resolved, That it is the settled conviction of this body 
that the Methodist Episcopal Church South has neither the 
legal nor moral right to transfer any property thus held to 
those who have withdrawn from our church. That we com 
mend the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church South, when 
formed, to the warmest sympathies, earnest prayers, and sup 
port of people of the South." 

The Colored Church South was organized under these 
resolutions, and the members of Center-street Church of 
Louisville became a part of that general organization. 



Being inspired by these resolutions from the General Con 
ference, the trustees, viz.: Washington Watson, Joshua Tevis, 
Jackson Pitman, Moses Bradley, and others, of Center-street 
Church, instituted suit March 22, 1871, against the trustees 
of Jackson-street Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, of 
Louisville, Ky. , for the possession of their property, claim 
ing that it was also deeded and held in trust for those adher 
ing to the Methodist Episcopal Church South. The suit was 
defended by the trustees of Jackson-street Church, viz.: Joel 
Bradshaw, Alexander Means, George Butler, Wm. Evans, 
Green Thomas, and others. Hon. J. M. Harlan (now Judge 
of the Supreme Court at Washington, D. C.), was counsel 
for appellees. 

Judge Harlan, in his concluding remarks, said : * That the 
appellants do not sue in the capacity of trustees of that 
general church organization, composed of many local so 
cieties, but in their capacity as trustees of the Center-street 
Church. By what authority does that particular local society 
claim the exclusive benefit of the order of May 10, 1870? 
There is nothing in the discipline of the Colored Church 
South, nor has any action been taken by that organization 
conferring upon the Center-street Church the exclusive right 
to sue for the property in controversy. Any other local 
society of the Colored Church South has an equal right to 
claim the benefit of the order of May 10, 1870. 

11 If, therefore, the order is valid for any purpose, the party 
to sue is the general organization, known and described in 
that order as The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, and not any one of the local societies. 

" Upon the whole case, this court can not hesitate to affirm 
the decree below. "JOHN M. HARLAN, 

"Attorney for Appellees, Bradshaw, et aL 
^LOUISVILLE, KY., Sept. i, 1874." 


Thus ended this famous suit of three years and six months 
in favor of the trustees of Jackson-street Church. 


Like her sister Methodist churches, she, too, had her bit 
ters with her sweets, in her early history. She was guided 
and pastored by the Rev. George Holland and Rev. Thomas, 
under whose Christian ministry many were added to the 
church. After the war, in 1870, they passed through a fiery 
ordeal, by the attempt of the trustees of the Colored Metho 
dist Church South suing for their property, in order that 
they might hold it in trust for those that might desire to re 
main in said southern connection. To meet this litigation, 
they employed an eminent jurist, Hon. Judge Harlan, who 
defended them and gained the vexatious suit. Since then, 
they have been pastored by some of the most eloquent 
divines of the Methodist Episcopal Church (North), among 
them being E. W. S. Hammond, Marshall Taylor, Dr. L. M. 
Hagood, and J. H. Stanley. 


The principal Baptist churches during the forties and 
fifties were the Fifth-street Baptist Church and the Green- 
street Baptist Church. Rev. Henry Adams, pastor of the 
Fifth-street Baptist Church, was, in his day, a very popular 
minister and a devout Christian. His congregation was large 
and imposing. He was also a revivalist; for weeks, and 
some times for months, his church was crowded with anxious 
seekers for redemption in Christ. He pastored that church 
for thirty-five or forty years, except for a short interval dur 
ing the fifties he was called to Cincinnati to pastor Baker-street 
Baptist Church, which was the leading church of that city. 


The sentiment of that church was strongly anti-slavery, and 
many of its members were connected with the Under-ground 
Railroad. Politics was discussed and prayer-meetings held 
for the liberation of the slaves. Bro. Adams was not ac 
customed to mixing politics and religion ; hence there was a 
divergence of opinion. He resigned and returned to his old 
flock at Louisville. During his absence Rev. Campbell was 
pastor of the congregation. Rev. Adams died in 1872, his 
remains being rested in the white Baptist Church, Fourth and 
Walnut streets a distinction that had not been tendered any 
other colored pastor of this State. Rev. Andrew Heath, who 
had been for several years assistant pastor to Rev. Henry 
Adams, was elected to fill the pulpit of the Fifth-street 
Baptist Church. A more devout Christian gentleman could 
not have been selected for the position. He was beloved by 
his congregation, and all who came in contact with Bro. An 
drew Heath admired him as a minister and a gentleman. 
We were personally acquainted with him for many years, 
and sat up with him during his illness. He was a brother 

Green-Street Baptist Church In the early forties the Rev. 
George Wells was pastor of that congregation. He was a 
very pious man and much beloved by his congregation. After 
his death several ministers officiated, until a regular pastor 
was chosen. Rev. Sneathen was called to Green-street Bap 
tist Church. He was a fearless leader among the people, 
and a good church governor. The large brick edifice was 
built under his administration. He increased the congrega 
tion by his popularity. He died in the seventies, and his 
funeral was largely attended. Dr. Gaddy, successor to Elder 
Sneathen, is one of the leading Baptist ministers of the South, 
and a graduate of the State University. His sermons are 


always interesting, and he is beloved by his congregation. 
He has also improved apd beautified Green-street Church 
during his administration, and it is a very popular church 
among the denominations. 

York-street Baptist ChurcJi This church was, in early days, 
occupied as a place of worship by the Fifth-street Congrega 
tion, Rev. H. Adams, pastor. It was then considered in 
the woods. After the Fifth-street Congregation moved into 
the heart of the city it was abandoned for years, until the 
Rev. W. W. Taylor occupied it. The Fifth-street Congrega 
tion claimed it and there was some litigation in regard to it. 
Rev. W. W. Taylor held possession until his death. A se 
rious accident happened there in 1870, during a protracted 
meeting. The lower floor and gallery being crowded, it was 
thought that the pillars were giving away and a panic fol 
lowed. A rush was made for the stairway, others jumped out 
of windows, and the result was eleven persons were killed. 
The church has been remodeled and now in charge of Rev. 
Parrish. a very excellent and learned divine, and President 
of the Exstein-Norton Seminary. This church is now called 
the Calvary Baptist Church. 

These churches mentioned were the old churches before 
the war, during the dark days of slavery. Since the close 
of the war a new era has dawned, and we have a large ad 
dition to our church properties and congregations. 


There was a small congregation of colored Presbyterians 
in Louisville in 1847, R CV - Jeremiah Bowman, minister. It 
was located on Center Street, between Walnut and Chestnut. 
It was not very prosperous. The pastor resigned and joined 
the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Several attempts 


were made to establish a church of this denomination, but 
its adherents worshiped with the white congregations, until 
Andrew Ferguson, a wealthy colored citizen, bequeathed to 
them a church with a complete outfit, and bore the chief ex 
penses of the church, as the congregation was very small. 
At his death he willed to his relatives, church, and Orphan s 
Home, as follows : $1,000 and a city lot to each of his three 
grandchildren; $500 to his pastor, Rev. S. W. Parr; $100 
to St. James Old Folks Home, $100 to the Colored Orphans 
Home, and $200 to Knox Presbyterian Church. We were 
personally acquainted with Mr. Ferguson. He was truly a 
Christian gentleman and a philanthropist. 


For years the Hancock-street Christian Church has been 
pastored by some of the most talented ministers of that de 
nomination, among them being Revs. Robinson and Dr. 
Rufus Conrad, deceased. Lately a missionary branch has 
been organized in the western part of the city by the Rev. 


This church was established in the year 1867, also a High 
School, Feb. n, 1867, on Green Street, near Ninth. The 
ceremonies attending the High School opening for colored 
youths were under the auspices of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the Diocese of Kentucky. The school was under 
the immediate supervision of Rev. Joseph S. Atwell, rector 
of St. Mark s Church. He was ordained at St. Paul s Church, 
in this city, by Bishop Smith. The teacher of the school 
was Miss Cornelia A. Jennings, who resigned the tutorship 
of a school in Philadelphia to take charge of this one. She 


brought from the various officials of that city the very highest 
testimonials as to her qualifications and previous success in 
teaching. As a graduate of the Philadelphia Institute she 
was awarded the Latin prize for the class of 1860, and had 
since been unusually successful as the principal of a school. 
The ceremonies were opened with religious services by the 
rector, and speeches by distinguished friends of education 
among our people. The Hon. James Speed, Attorney-Gen 
eral to President Lincoln, was among them and gave words 
of cheer. 

This mission church and school continued for several 
years. Rev. Atwell and Miss Jennings married and resigned. 
Prof. D. A. Straker and a young lady assistant succeeded 
them. They continued church and school for some time, 
but finally closed and located in Washington, D. C. Another 
location was obtained for the mission, donated by Dr. Norton, 
on Madison Street, between Ninth and Tenth ; Rector John 
Cook (white) had charge, under Bishop Dudley. The school 
was taught by Miss Cornelia Roxborough and Mr. Wilson, 
and improved in numbers. A third location was purchased, 
through the influence of Bishop Dudley a large brick church 
(formerly the property of the Presbyterians). In thirty years, 
through a hard struggle, they have a large congregation. 
Rev. Brown, of New York, is the present rector. 

The friends of St. Mark s Episcopal Church being desi 
rous of helping that mission, offered their services to Miss 
Jennings to assist her in a concert to be given in New Al 
bany, Ind. A hall was obtained and the date announced 
through the papers and hand-bills. The writer was selected 
as manager, Miss Jennings and Mrs. M. V. Smith, soloist 
and pianist, assisted by W. H. Gibson, Jr. The audience 
had assembled and the concert in full blast, when the sheriff 


of the county appeared and demanded our license. We had 
none. We stated it was a church concert. He stated that 
it made no difference ; we must pay or shut up. We paid 
the license, as there seemed to be no other remedy; but it 
left us a very small margin for the mission. Our next con 
cert was on this side of the river, where church concerts pay 
no license, and we had success. 


This church was erected on the site of the Old Soldiers 
Barracks and Hospital, Broadway and Fifteenth Street. By 
the solicitation of a number of colored Catholics, Bishop 
Spalding, who then had charge of this diocese, employed me 
to instruct the first colored choir of jthe church at $25 per 
month. I performed that duty until I found that it would 
conflict with other duties in my church, then resigned. Mrs. 
M. V. Smith and W. H. Gibson, Jr., were my successors 
until they obtained a teacher of their own denomination. 
The membership has increased rapidly, and they have a large 
denominational day school attached, conducted on Catholic 


Quinn Chapel A. M. E. Church Rev. E. Tyree, M. D. 

Asbury Chapel A. M. E. Church Rev. Jackson. 

St. James Chapel A. M. E. Church Rev. Certain. 

Young s Chapel A. M. E. Church Rev. Dent. 

Twelfth-street Zion A. M. E. Church Rev. Seymour. 

Fifteenth-street Zion A. M. E. Church Rev. Mason. 

Jacob-street Tabernacle A. M. E. Church Rev. Jones. 

Center-street C. M. E. Church Rev. Luckett. 

Old Fort Missionary Chiwch 


Independent Methodist Church Rev. Anderson. 

Jackson-street Methodist Church Rev. Johnson. 

Fifth-avenue Baptist Church Rev. J. Frank. 

Green-street Baptist Church Rev. Dr. Gaddy. 

Calvary Baptist Church Rev. Parrish. 

Center-street Zion Church Rev. Craighead. 

Gladstone Church Rev. Scott. 

Ninth-street Church 

Lampton-street Church Rev. Bates. 

Eighth-street Church 

Eleverith-street Mission (Christian) Rev. Robinson. 

Hancock-street Christian Church 


This branch of the church received less opposition, from 
a religious and literary point of view, than any other in 
which the negro could be engaged. It was at the Sunday- 
school gatherings that the Christians of the various white 
congregations would come and engage in this work, teaching 
the free and the slave to read the Bible, with Christian lec 
tures, presentation of libraries, maps, and charts necessary 
for ^such work. They considered this "Home Mission 1 the 
heathen at their own door. This labor eliminated the stigma 
of Abolitionist, and all who felt disposed could engage in this 
noble and charitable work, in which we are proud to say 
many Christian ladies and gentlemen of different denomina 
tions joined in prosecuting. 

The names that will be foremost in the memory of those 
who attended these Sunday-school gatherings are Mr. and 
Mrs. Bliss, and Mr. W. H. Bulkley and family. They spent 
a lifetime in the interest of the colored Sunday-schools of our 
city. Mr. and Mrs. Bliss are dead and gone to rest. Mr. 


Bliss died recently in Cincinnati, O. Mr. Bulkley still lives, 
but he is too aged to work, and has retired. 


In the early part of the fifties, the officers of Quinn 
Chapel, Asbury Chapel, Center-street and Jackson-street M. 
E. churches organized a Union Singing-school for children, 
to alternate from church to church, every Sunday afternoon. 
The movement had a telling effect. " Music hath charms." 
Parents and children came from every direction, until often 
the churches could not seat the immense crowds. The sing 
ing was conducted by the writer, at that time the only vocal 
teacher of music for our children. It was conducted suc 
cessfully until the breaking out of the Rebellion of 1861, 
when it was closed. 


At the opening of the Public Schools by the State, for the 
education of colored children, it was thought advisable by 
the white School Board, who were elective, to appoint a 
number of colored citizens to act as an Advisory Board, be 
ing better acquainted with the wants and conditions of their 
people, visit the schools, recommend suitable teachers, see 
to the comforts and locations of buildings, etc. These duties, 
in conjunction with the white board, worked well for a time, 
but, unfortunately for us, we are so apt to carry our church 
or denominational views into every general enterprise that 
interests the whole people, that failure generally results. This 
Advisory Board was attacked by a number of citizens meet 
ings being called and a petition signed and addressed to the 
white board setting forth their grievances. We quote the 
following : 


"As citizens, we do not desire to patronize denomina 
tional schools, neither Methodist, Baptist, Catholic, or any 
other. We desire to send our children to schools which are 
free from the influence of any particular church or denomi 
national influence. The remedy in this matter is quite 
plain. If our schools are to be conducted in church interest, 
let us have a man on the Advisory Board from each of our 
colored churches, in both ends of the city. If they are to 
take notice of the citizens in each ward, let us have a man 
on the Advisory Board from each ward. If this can not be 
done, then let the Advisory Board of the colored schools be 
abolished, and let the white trustees, whom we helped to 
elect, conduct the schools." 

The petitioners succeeded in their efforts, and the col 
ored board was abolished. Peace was secured by this 
action, and our Public Schools are the pride of our citizen, 
vicing with the best disciplined of any city in the country. 
Profs. Maxwell, Williams, Perry, Mazeek, Taylor, McKinley, 
Carter, and Miss L. N. Duvalle are the principals, with an 
efficient corps of teachers. 


Washington Spradling was the leading colored man in 
business and the largest real estate holder. He was a bar 
ber by trade, but he made his mark as a business man by 
trading and brokerage, in connection with his shaving. His 
mode of making money consisted in buying and leasing lots 
in different parts of the city and building and moving frame 
cottages upon those lots. He also built several brick busi 
ness houses on Third Street. Mr. Spradling had many 
peculiarities; his dress was very common, as he exhibited no 
pride in that direction. He loved to converse on law, and, 
though he was uneducated, was considered one of the best 


lawyers to plan or prepare a case for the court. He was 
very successful, and nearly every colored person who was in 
trouble (more or less) first consulted Washington Spradling; 
he selected the lawyer and prepared the case. He was sel 
dom defeated, and, if so, he was sure to take an appeal. 
His customers were the first judges and lawyers of the State, 
and from long and constant contact with them he seemed to 
have acquired their inspiration. He was a Methodist by 
profession, being a member of the Jackson-street M. E. 
Church. In the early history of that church it was called 
Spradling s Church. He died in the year 1867 and his body 
was rested in the Jackson-street church, Rev. Hiram Revels, 
ex-Senator, preached the sermon. His wealth was esti 
mated to be one hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars, 
which was willed to his wife, children, and grandchildren. 
His son, \Vm. Spradling, was his successor. 

David Straws, a prominent barber and an honored citi 
zen, was conspicuous among the colored citizens. He was 
born a slave, but purchased his freedom, and by application 
to business acquired some very good property, one piece 
located on Sixth Street, an annex to the Louisville Hotel. 
He was a prominent member of the Fourth-street M. E. 
Church, and figured very prominently in the lawsuits against 
the white Methodist South and the Harper split against the 
African M. E. Church. He died in 1868 and willed his 
property to his wife, May Straws. 

Peter Lewis, George Sutton, and Willis Taylor were noted 
colored painters of their day. Peter Lewis, at one time, 
controlled the principal jobs of the city and employed many 
hands and apprentices. He acquired some good property, 
but lost it by security debts. 

Cain Bazil, Jackson Burks, Moses Lawson, James Tate. 


and Green Stevens were engaged in merchandising, running 
carpet and furnishing stores. They made comfortable liv 
ings and acquired some property. James Tate is the only 
one of this group that survives. 

John and Berry Evans were noted boss carpenters. 

Jesse Merriwether was a noted carpenter. He was born 
a slave, but was freed by consenting to go to Africa, which 
he did in 1847, remained one year, and returned and lived 
and died here in sight of his liberators. 

Bartlett Taylor was a noted butcher before the war. He 
had a stall in one of our principal market-houses and did a 
flourishing business. He was impressed and called to the 
ministry, closed out business, and joined the itineracy of the 
A. M. E. Church. He was successful in his labors and con 
sidered the church-builder of the Kentucky Conference. He 
is now numbered on the superannuated role, and has a com 
fortable home. 

Wm. Malone is a boss bricklayer and controls a large 

Adam Nichols, J. Morand, and Chas. Logan are boss 
mechanics, blacksmiths and wagon-makers. 

C. B. Clay is a noted tailor on Broadway, and receives 
liberal patronage. 

Henry Cozzens was a prominent barber in the Louisville 
Hotel, but changed his business to that of a confectioner. 
His confectionery and ice cream saloon was the resort of the 
elite among his people. For years the name of Cozzens 
Saloon was known from New Orleans to Pittsburg. He was 
also a great church man, and was in his glory when he had 
the clergy as his guest. 

John Morris, another noted barber, was a highly esteemed 
citizen of Louisville, and acquired considerable property. 


He was a very humane man and a Christian gentleman. 
Alexander Morris, his nephew, succeeds him in business, is 
highly respected, has held several important positions in the 
Government service, and is chairman of the Centennial 
Commission of the Colored Department of Kentucky at 
Nashville, Tenn. His brothers, Shelton and Alexander, 
were of the same profession tonsorial artists. Alexander 
died in New Orleans, La., of yellow fever, in 1848. Shel 
ton acquired considerable property in Louisville, but closed 
out business and moved to Cincinnati, O., in the forties, be 
ing accused of voting for Gen. Harrison for President; 
from Cincinnati he moved to Xenia or Wilberforce, where 
he engaged in farming. He died a few years ago, and left 
a widow and several children to inherit his property. The 
children and grandchildren occupy prominent positions in 

Theodore Sterritt and Nathan B. Rogers, for many years 
conspicuous as barbers at the old Gait House, with the 
notable Major Throckmorton, were quiet and Christian 
gentlemen. Rogers acquired considerable property, and 
bequeathed it to his wife and children at his death, in 1891. 

J. C. N. Fowles and Austin Hubbard were prominent 
barbers. Hubbard died a few years ago. 

Madison Smith conducted a stove manufactory and ac 
quired considerable wealth. He closed business, moved to 
Indiana, and engaged in farming, where he died. His 
wife remained there, conducting the farm. 

Green Smith was a leading plasterer, and employed a 
number of hands and apprentices. Many of the fine build 
ings of Louisville received the finishing stroke of his trowel. 

Willis Talbot and brother, John Jordan, were first-class 
carpenters. Willis was born -a slave, but acquired his free- 


dom by his genius and skilled workmanship in wood. His 
master, Dr. Johnson, took him to New York to examine the 
fine buildings of that city, so that he could return and build 
him a house from the designs that they had examined. He 
was equal to the task and obtained his freedom. The build 
ing in that day was considered one of the finest in the city. 
He was noted as a great stair-builder, and he worked for the 
leading contractors, until his age retired him from labor. 

The Fox Brothers, J. H. Taylor, and Wm. Watson con 
trolled the undertaking business. It was introduced by J. H. 
Taylor in 1867. Mrs. Fox succeeded her husband and man 
aged the business for many years. J. H. Taylor and Wm. 
Watson now handle the business of the various societies, 
churches, and the colored community generally. 

George Brown and Daniel Clemmons were professional 
caterers, and their establishment, during the war, was the 
resort of noted generals and distinguished citizens. Their 
menu was such as the most fastidious might crave. 

Frank Gray and Thornton Thompson are noted caterers, 
and they have acquired considerable property. 

William Butcher, for upwards of thirty-five years, was with 
the firm of Bradley & Gilbert. He was connected with the 
office when Messrs. Bradley and Gilbert were apprentices, 
and much of the knowledge they acquired of the printing 
business was obtained under the tutelage of Mr. Butcher. 
He remained with them up to the time of his death. He 
was skilled as a pressman, working on the first Adams 
presses that were shipped west of the Alleghany Mountains. 
He occupied a prominent position among his people a 
devout Christian and charitable to the poor and needy. He 
was one of the first warranted members of Mt. Moriah 
Lodge, held many posts of honor, and died in 1892. He 


willed his property to his sister, at her death to be given to 
Mt. Moriah Lodge, F. A. Masons. 


Among the harassing scenes that the system of slavery 
produced, there were, at times, here and there, a few oases, 
as it were, where the free people could assemble and rest 
from the environments from which the peculiar situation 
subjected them to during the forties and fifties. 

The great highway between Pittsburg and New Orleans, 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, on whose bosom floated the 
palatial steamers loaded with the products of those valleys, 
and giving employment to thousands of free colored men 
and women, had its clouds and its sunshine. Often, when 
arriving at New Orleans, the steward, or some one of his 
crew, would be arrested for coming into the State in con 
travention of the law. We have known men and women, 
free born, who would choose some officer of the boat to act 
as his master, in order to evade the law. At other times, for 
a sufficient sum of money, a white woman or Creole would 
swear before a court that you were born in the State, or that 
she was your godmother; and when these subterfuges failed 
the free negro was sold, until some one redeemed him from 
the shackles of the chain-gang. 

These cruel, unjust laws and punishments did not deter 
these free men and women from contesting and contending 
for the right to make a living on these great highways. 

The same instinct that leads the white race to dangers 
and put their lives in peril in the mines, on the sea, on 
desert, or wherever money is found to enhance his happiness 
and that of his family, and the same spirit of perseverance, 
were displayed by the free men and women, at the risk of 


becoming slaves. With all of these surroundings it showed 
a spirit of indomitable courage, whose example may well be 
copied by the present generation. 

The occupation of steward was a position of rank, com 
manding a salary of from $150 to $200 per month; second 
stewards from $75 to $100; barbers, on a trip from Pitts- 
burg, Cincinnati, and Louisville to New Orleans, netted from 
$50 to $75 ; cabin boys from $40 to $50 a trip; stewardesses 
from $50 to $100. 

When in port these employes, though free and in a 
slave country, would seek their pleasure, for many of them 
owned their property in those ports, and on the arrival of 
these steamers a large party or some amusement for their 
family and friends was given. The music of violin or piano 
would be heard until the wee hours of morning. 

During the forties and fifties was the golden age of steam- 
boating on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers among the free 
colored men and women. Music was furnished on all the 
steamers for the passengers, and colored musicians were 
always in demand, as the foreigner had not monopolized 
everything in that line as now. The colored artist of those 
days made a respectable competency during the boating 
seasons. Musicians from the East would come West and 
South, as they were in demand. Among them were mem 
bers of the celebrated Frank Johnson s Band, of Philadel 
phia, the same that escorted Gen. William Henry Harrison 
to the West in the forties, after his election to the Presidency. 
Prof. Johnson also visited England about that time, played 
before the Queen of England, and received from her a silver 
bugle. Among the most notable of those musicians playing 
on the boats were Prof. Anderson Lewis, George Hamlet, 
the "Ole Bull" of his race as a violinist; Elijah Smith, the 



renowned violincello player; Edward Johnson, the clarinet 
ist; Samuel L. White, the guitarist, and others of that cele 
brated band. These men were also composers, as we have 
in our library a number of pieces dedicated to the steamers 
Eclipse, Mary Hunt, A. L. Shotwell, and Falls City, by 
Geo. Hamlet. 

The prominent stewards of our city were Wm. Rankin, 
Salin Stephney, David Clark, T. H. Miller, Jas. Dungy, 
Joseph Brady, David Wells, John Rankin, Conoway Barber, 
Leonidas Cox, Dabney Page, and Sullivan Clark. These men 
were highly respected by the citizens generally, and most of 
them acquired property and lived comfortably in their homes. 
The finest hotels in the country furnished no finer bills of 
fare than these stewards did for the Ohio and Mississippi 
steamers. This class of freemen were compelled to use dis 
cretion in their intercourse with their slave brethren. Some 
times close conversation or undue familiarity would cause 
suspicion from their masters, and if one should escape to 
Canada the freeman would probably be arrested as being 
connected with the Underground Railroad. 

PA., IN 1852. 

Being imbued with the spirit of freedom, and living, as 
it were, in a " Pent up Utica," we desired to see the lead 
ers and listen to the discussions of this great question that so 
aroused the nation from North to South, from East to West. 
We stealthily stole away by steamer to the Smoky City, but 
few friends knowing our destination. On arriving there, we 
sought the Convention Hall, which was filled to its utmost 
capacity. For the first time we saw the leaders of this great 
political movement, which culminated in the protection of the 


virgin soil against the blighting curse of slavery. For the first 
time we saw that trio of negro leaders, Frederick Douglass, 
William Harlan Garnett, and Dr. Martin R. Delany, asso 
ciated with such men as Henry Wilson, W. L. Garrison, 
Thaddeus Stevens, and others. 

The subject of free and slave territory was fully and ably 
discussed in all of its bearings; also the policy of nominating 
candidates upon a platform that would secure to the emigrant 
free and untrammeled liberty from the encroachment of slave 

When Frederick Douglass arose to speak upon those mo 
mentous subjects, he related an incident that occurred on his 
trip to Pittsburg, he being in company with the delegation from 
Rochester, N. Y. all white but himself. When the train 
stopped for dinner everybody rushed to the hotel, among 
them Mr. Douglass. The proprietor, standing at the door 
to receive his guests, when Mr. Douglass attempted to enter, 
remarked: "You can not enter my dining-room!" Mr. 
Douglass, whith his massive form, straightened up, and with 
that silver-toned voice, exclaimed from the door-way: "Is 
there anyone who objects to Frederick Douglass entering 
this dining-room?" The answer came immediately from 
a hundred voices, " No ! No ! No ! " The proprietor stepped 
aside, and Mr. Douglass was the hero of the dining-hall. 
His speech was the ablest that we had ever heard from a 
colored man, and we felt more than compensated for travel 
ing five hundred miles to hear him. 

It was our first visit to a National Convention, and that a 
Freesoil Convention. The impression there made will never 
be eradicated. We subscribed for the paper published by 
Mr. Douglass, at Rochester, N. Y. ; one for myself, and one 
for each of my friends, Jesse Merriwether and James Cun- 


ningham. We had them mailed to New Albany, Ind., in 
the care of my friend, Wm. Harding. They were brought 
over, read by us, and the subject-matter discussed. When 
through with them we hid them in the top of the piano, 
among the music, for had the authorities known of that 
seditious sheet (as it was termed at that time) our peace and 
happiness would have been disturbed. 


This law presented to the free negroes of the United 
States a panic. Every State north of the Mason and Dixon 
line became a hunting-ground for the slave-owner and slave- 
catcher for fugitive slaves. 

The decision rendered by Judge Taney, of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, "That negroes had no rights 
that white men were bound to respect," set every negro-hater 
wild for blood. The President of the United States, Millard 
Fillmore, issued a proclamation for its execution, and in a 
short time the United States Army and Navy were in hot 
pursuit of the fleeing fugitive at the behest of his master. 
The streets of Boston, the cradle of freedom, was desecrated 
by the tramp of this army. 

Frederick Douglass, who had escaped to the North, and 
for years lectured and exposed the nefarious system, escaped 
to England and there remained until his body was purchased 
by the friends of freedom and the slave. Other noted fugi 
tives, who had lived North for years and raised large families, 
had to flee for their lives, for resistance was death. 

This decision had its effect upon the large free population 
in the southern cities. The legislatures enacted oppressive 
laws, forcing them to leave the States or virtually become 
slaves. In our own State. Kentucky, there was a bill offered 


to bind out all free negro children until they were of age. 
This bill aroused the free families, and an exodus took place. 
Families left this city to look for other quarters of freer soil. 
Some went to Northern Ohio, Michigan, Canada, and others 
left in groups, prospecting for a place to settle, fearing that 
the bill would pass. The writer was one of a party who left 
the city and visited Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, and Canada. 
Some of the party made purchases in those States and in 
Canada. The writer and several of our citizens purchased 
in Chatham, Windsor, and London. The bill failed to be 
come a law; for it had many opponents and friends of the 
free people in the legislature. A large number of the legis 
lature were gradual Emancipationists, and hence would not 
support the bill. 

The writer was handled very roughly on one occasion du 
ring these perilous times. Having visited the East and re 
turning West, when arriving at Seymour, Ind., he, with other 
colored passengers, were driven out of the passenger coach 
by a mob into the baggage car, among the dogs of the hunts 
men (for it was in the fall season). The mob swore that no 
negroes should ride in the coach with white people. Such 
was the effect of that iniquitous bill upon the condition of 
the colored people. History seems to be repeating itself in 
that of the separate coach laws of this day and time. 

The laws inspired the slave-hunters, for large rewards 
were offered for the return of absconding slaves. A female 
slave of a noted family of Kentucky was traced to Cincin 
nati, O. She was arrested, and the court under the law 
consigned her to her master. She was a mother. She and 
her infant were placed on board of a steamer plying be 
tween Cincinnati and Louisville, and when a few miles from 
shore she plunged into the river,, with her babe in her arms, 


and was drowned before assistance could be rendered. She 
sought a watery grave in preference to slavery and the 
punishment that awaited her on her return. 


It was an iniquitous system during those days of horror, 
It was customary for three or four of those guardians of the 
night to visit the houses of free families at midnight, search 
their houses, uncover females in their beds, and ask for run 
away slaves, or negroes from free States here in contraven 
tion of the laws of the State. We have known instances, 
when such persons were found, in which they were impris 
oned, fined heavily, or ordered to leave the State. These 
occurrences were immediately reported to our ministers of 
those days, and they would console their congregations by 
requesting fasting and prayer, especially on Fridays, for de 
liverance. You who read this history can judge whether 
their prayers were answered. 


Frederick Cranshaw, a slave, though entitled to his free 
dom, was kidnapped and placed in the hands of traders. 
Passing through the canal was a slow movement for boats 
in those days. The church people heard of the arrest it 
was on Sunday they hurried to the canal in crowds, singing 
and praying to God to stop the boat and deliver Bro. Fred 
erick. The excitement grew so intense that the sheriff ar 
rested the captain and had the matter investigated. 

It was proven by the investigation that Bro. Frederick was 
entitled to his freedom. His chains were stricken off, and a 
great prayer-meeting held in the old Fourth-street Church, 


thanking God for his deliverance. We were personally ac 
quainted with Bro. Frederick Myers. Cranshaw was the 
name of his owner, and he was often called by that name. 
He was a member of the Indiana Conference A. M. E. 
Church, and held prominent appointments in that State. He 
was a member of the Missouri Conference when last we 
heard of him. Frederick Myers is extensively known by the 
older citizens of Louisville. He also had charge of Asbury 
Chapel after the lawsuit between Harper and Strauss. 


The political campaign of that year created many bloody 
scenes in Louisville among the Irish citizens, from the fact 
that they, with others of the foreign element, had opposed 
the common or public school tax. The Catholics bitterly 
opposed the system, and desired their taxes separated for de 
nominational purposes. This gave rise to the "American" 
or "Know-nothing Party" throughout many of the States, 
and a severe conflict was the result at the polls, especially in 
the large cities. One of the bloodiest scenes or tragedies 
ever witnessed occurred at the polls in Louisville. Every 
Irishman or foreigner who dared to approach the polls were 
assailed by the American or Know-nothing Party and driven 
away, clubs and guns being used in districts where the 
Irish were largely located. The bloodiest scene occurred on 
Twelfth and Main streets, where a whole block of buildings 
was burned, and the inmates shot down while escaping. 
Seven were burned in the buildings, and among them a Ro 
man Catholic priest. The bodies were conveyed to the Court 
house, where the inquest was held, and were viewed by 
thousands of spectators. In the eastern portion of the city 


the Germans were attacked, but they did not fare so badly 
as their Irish fellow-citizens. The negro was only a spec 
tator to these scenes. It was a white man s fight, the ne 
groes troubles being reserved for the near future. 


Three schools were taught at that time by colored teach 
ers, viz. : R. M. Lane, Rev. Peter Booth, and Rev. Henry 
Adams ; but as their schools were more on the outskirts of 
the city, they were not thought to be so objectionable. We 
opened a school on the corner of Fourth and Green streets, 
and trusted in God for its guidance and protection. We 
taught there for three years, until the building was sold, in 
1851. During our location there we had school exhibitions, 
singing classes, night schools, and concerts, and without 
molestation. Mrs. Hoffman and Miss Cummins taught small 
private schools. 

The greatest novelty was the first introduction of a musical 
instrument in a colored church in this city. Our music 
classes were led by a violin, and our concerts accompanied 
by an orchestra, composed of colored and white musicians. 
Prof. James Cunningham and Henry Williams employed 
German musicians in their bands. The Germans had not 
learned the prejudice existing against the negro in the 
forties. The following incident I witnessed in Baltimore, 
Md. , during a grand parade : A colored band was driven out 
of the procession by Gen. Smith, who rode his horse over 
them, and all because the white band refused to march with 
them ; but the company that employed them came out of the 
ranks also. 



Brooks Station, Ky. 



Market Street was the scene of this American evil. 
Thousands wended their way thither to witness the separa 
tion of husband and wife, children and parents, never to 
meet again, perhaps, in this life. On the auction block the 
auctioneer cries, "A fine negro woman, Sallie, going at $500, 
$600, $700. with no incumbrance." Another, "with two 
children, can be sold together or separately;" and another, 
"Tom, a fine farm hand, ought to bring $900 he hired out 
last year for $300. " There were hundreds sitting on the curb 
stone and in the market-place, with two or three children, 
and a baby at the breast, weeping. The husband sold in 
another direction, and mother and children crying, "don t 
take papa;" but their entreaties were in vain with those 
traders in human flesh. With this, our first view of the slave 
mart, we left, praying God that we might be saved from 
another such scene. 


One among the colored artists in music was Henry Wil 
liams, the renowned violinist. But few distinguished white 
persons in the forties and fifties from whose parlors could not 
be heard the sonorous strains of Henry Williams violin. 
He was employed to teach their sons and daughters quadrilles 
and mazourkas, and for years was the leading spirit of his pro 
fession. James Cunningham, Sr. , successor to Henry Wil 
liams, for many years was held in the same high esteem as a 
musician. He was born in the West Indies and served in 
the British Navy. He was highly cultured. He furnished 
music for all of the stylish weddings, parties, picnics, etc. 


His band was composed of white and colored musicians, 
among them Lewis Lily, H. Hicks, and William Cole. His 
children were also adepts in the art, two sons and a daughter 
proving to be quite proficient as musical artists. James Cun 
ningham, Jr., is the leader of the best colored band in our 

Samuel L. White, photographer and musician, originally 
of Philadelphia, Pa., was the finest and most accomplished 
guitarist of those times, and also a composer. His studio 
was the resort of the best classes of colored and white citi 
zens. His scholars were of both sexes, white and colored. He 
also gave private lessons in white families. All this was du 
ring the dark days of slavery. The writer was also one of 
his pupils, and can testify to his accomplishments. Yet, 
with these accomplishments, he was finally compelled to 
leave the State simply for being too refined. His residence 
was on Jefferson Street, near the corner of Fourth Avenue. 
The old Jefferson House was the corner building and was 
used as a hotel. His wife was a first-class milliner. They 
had many visitors; of course, he being such a distinguished 
personage, it could not have been otherwise. His busi 
ness was in the very heart of the city, but, unfortunately, 
this Jefferson Hotel was not first-class, as its inmates, or 
boarders, were negro-haters. The superior qualifications of 
Samuel L. White were too much for their imaginations, so 
they began to harass him and his family by stoning his house 
from the rear and from the roof of the hotel. They would 
hurl stones through the windows and break the dishes on the 
table while he and his guests were at meals, and with other 
mean devices they continued to harass him until it became 
unbearable, as he had no protection. Ku-kluxing and lynch 
ing were then unknown, but this substitution answered as 


well. When he applied to the authorities for protection 
they advised him to leave the State, as this class would be a 
continual annoyance to him. Finally, our old friend bade 
us adieu. He moved to Cincinnati, O., where he and his 
wife engaged in business. They were aged and devout 
members of the Baptist Church. They died in 1870. 


The great Free Soil and Squatter Sovereignty questions 
convulsed the whole country, and Abraham Lincoln and 
Stephen A. Douglass debated the issues of that campaign. 
Mr. Douglass visited Louisville soon afterward and spoke to 
immense crowds. The people were entertained by the most 
noted and hated man in the State as an Abolitionist and 
advocate of human rights, Cassius M. Clay. In his speech, 
when advocating the cause of the negro, he was asked what 
he was going to do with the negro. He replied that he 
would first free him and then free the poor white man. His 
speech, it is supposed, gained but few converts in this local 
ity, as the feeling was very bitter against the advocates of the 
Free Soil and Emancipation doctrine; in fact, it was thought 
that he would not be allowed to speak in this city, but Cas 
sius Clay feared no threats. The writer was present in the 
city of Frankfort, the capital of the State, during the same 
campaign. The Capitol door was closed against him when 
he had an appointment to speak there. The friends of Mr. 
Clay held the meeting in the Capitol Square, with hundreds 
of candles to light up the grounds, that the people might see 
and hear the great orator. The negro element was aroused 
at the crisis that seemed impending; they discussed these 
issues among themselves and concluded that a conflict was 
at hand, and that it would be safer to reside north of the 


Mason and Dixon line, and they were not very slow in going, 
many of them free and many slaves, the slaves taking the 
Underground Railroad. 

From 1855 to 1860 a spirit of unrest pervaded this com 
munity among the colored citizens, yet they trusted God and 
persevered to do the right, looking forward to some miracu 
lous change. 


In the year 1850 Rev. Bird Parker, minister of the 
A. M. E. Church (now Quinn Chapel), met a number of 
gentlemen at the house of Jesse Merriwether, on Walnut 
Street, between Ninth and Tenth streets. The object of the 
meeting was to consider the propriety of organizing a ma 
sonic lodge. Several meetings were held, and finally they 
concluded to organize. Several Masons from Cincinnati, 
O., met with them. A question arose in the meeting, and 
was discussed pro and con., whether it would be advisable 
to establish a lodge in Louisville while the prejudice was so 
strong against free negroes, as none but those could be 
received. This question caused a split, and the majority 
decided to locate the lodge at New Albany, Ind., for a 
while, at least. The necessary number for institution was 
secured and they went to Cincinnati, O., and received their 
warrant from the Grand Lodge of Ohio. Richard H. 
Gleaves, Grand Master of Ohio, set Mount Moriah Lodge 
No. i to work June 12, 1850. For three years they remained 
at New Albany, Ind. They labored under many disadvan 
tages, such as crossing the river in skiffs at midnight, amid 
high water and heavy drifts, at the risk of their lives, and then 
walking five miles up to the city. They finally concluded 
to move to Louisville, Ky. , though there was a nucleus fora 
lodge left at New Albany with those brethren who lived in 
that city. 


Our advent into Kentucky was with many forebodings, 
but we were not molested until the year 1859, about the time 
of the " John Brown raid." The excitement that prevailed 
in Virginia and all of the Southern States had extended to 
Kentucky. All free negro assemblies were closely watched. 
At one of our meetings the police made a raid on us and 
marched us to jail. The writer was secretary of the lodge. 
We were ordered to bring the books along, so that they could 
see what we were doing. 

The jailer refused to put us in the castle, but directed us 
to the court-room. He sent for the police judge, who came 
and interrogated us, and dismissed us until morning. He 
took our words as our bonds to return. We returned in the 
morning, but they refused to admit us into court or try the 
case. So ended this farce or incarceration of negro Masons 
in Kentucky. 

The Grand Lodge of Kentucky was organized in 1866 
under the "National Compact." 


Rev. J. H. Sweres, with a number of others, petitioned 
the Grand Lodge of Ohio, W. H. Parham, Most Worthy 
Grand Master, for a dispensation to organize a body of Free 
Masons in the city of Louisville. It was granted, but not 
without an appeal and a stubborn resistance from the Grand 
Lodge of Kentucky. Blue lodges, chapters, and Knight 
Templars were established. This caused quite a rivalry in 
Masonry and considerable bad feeling among the craft of 
the two bodies. The old Kentucky Grand Lodge renounced 
the National Compact and declared State sovereignty in 
order to meet the views formerly held by Ohio, but no con 
cession seemed to prevail, and the strife was very bitter for 


several years. A few brethren of cool head and pure hearts 
believed that this difficulty could be adjusted and peace and 
harmony be strengthened. Henry King, of Lexington, Ky., 
being elected Grand Master of the State, he appointed a 
committee of Past Masters of the State of Kentucky to open 
up a correspondence with the Grand Master of Ohio, W. H. 
Parham, to learn upon what terms a settlement could be 
made between the two grand bodies. The following was the 
committee : W. H. Gibson, Wm. Spradling, Austin Hub- 
bard, Horace Morris, and Wm. Butcher. W. H. Gibson 
conducted the correspondence and a meeting was arranged 
to take place at Cincinnati, O. Grand Master Parham and 
a committee from the Grand Lodge of Ohio met and dis 
cussed the difficulty that had caused the strained relations 
between the Grand Lodge of Kentucky and the Grand Lodge 
of Ohio. They finally made a settlement as follows: That 
when the lodges in Kentucky working under the Grand 
Lodge of Ohio desired to withdraw from Ohio and attach 
themselves to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, Ohio would 
grant the transfer by a proper exchange of warrants and a 
settlement of all other claims, and that Ohio would cease to 
make Masons in Kentucky while this amity existed. This 
proposition was accepted by Kentucky and an amicable rela 
tionship established between the two grand bodies. For 
years the members of the lodges of Louisville visited the 
lodges under Ohio s warrants, and vice versa. They sought 
the friendship that is taught and the duties of one Mason to 
another until finally this manner of courtship proved to be a 
wedding. The lodges, chapters, and Knight Templars ex 
changed warrants and became a part and parcel of the 
Grand Lodge of Kentucky. This action caused another 
grievance on the part of the Ohio Grand Lodge concerning 


some informalities in regard to the exchange of warrants. 
Another committee was appointed by the Grand Lodge of 
Kentucky to meet in Cincinnati with a committee from the 
Grand Lodge of Ohio and adjust this grievance, which was 
accomplished by the following committee on the part of 
Kentucky : W. H. Steward, Horace Morris, and Chas. Steel, 
Grand Master. 



Our relation with the United Order of Odd Fellows was 
most courteous from 1872 to 1888. I was an active member 
of St. Luke Lodge No. 1771, and was one of the committee 
of Union and St. Luke lodges that concluded we had paid 
enough money to white real estate agents for rent, and that 
it was time to assemble in our own property. Being con 
vinced of this fact, the two lodges, Union and St. Luke, 
joined their treasuries together, amounting to near $800, sent 
out a committee, composed of Alonzo Black, Shelton Guest, 
and Alex. Lily, from Union Lodge, and W. H. Gibson and 
Charles Lewis, from St. Luke Lodge, who investigated and 
purchased property for a hall on Green Street, between 
Thirteenth and Fourteenth, at $2,500, with three years to 
pay for it. It was paid for in twenty-one months. These two 
lodges invited the other lodges, patriarchies and H. of Ruths, 
to take stock in the building, shares $ i oo each. They accepted 
the invitation, formed a consolidated lodge, and obtained an 
act of incorporation from the legislature. The business was 
conducted by a Board of Directors, with President, Vice 
President, Secretary, and Treasurer. Everything moved on 
harmoniously, lodges were incorporated as their shares were 
paid up, and at the expiration of three years they had saved 
$1,000. Another and more valuable piece of property was 


offered for sale for $10,000. A committee was empowered to 
investigate, a lawyer employed to examine the deed, and the 
property purchased at $10,000, with ten years to pay it. 
This property was paid for in five years. The purchasing 
of property with the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows 
seemed to give new inspiration, and everything that they put 
their hands to seemed to prosper. In the purchase of this 
new hall the act of incorporation was amended, W. H. Gib 
son and C. H. Spalding being appointed a committee to visit 
the legislature and make the application, and all the lodges 
were inserted in this charter. My relation as secretary of 
the Consolidated Lodges closed September, 1888, serving a 
period of eight successive years, and handling for them over 
$20,000, until the property was paid for. 

With this rapid and grand exhibit followed a fearful 
calamity. On the 2yth of March, 1890, the great cyclone 
that visited the city of Louisville demolished our splendid 
hall, and crippled several brethren and one sister, whose 
lives were miraculously saved. This destruction threw gloom 
and despondency over an oppressed people, struggling for a 
foothold in the financial circles of the fraternities. But the 
Consolidated Board, under the administration of W. H. 
Ward, an old and experienced Odd Fellow, it is hoped, will 
succeed in paying for the new building erected on the old 
site, and that the glory of the latter house may be greater 
than that of the former. 


When the attack on Fort Sumter was proclaimed to the 
nation, and when Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States, called to arms ! to arms ! three hundred thousand 
men ! our Governor, Beriah Magoffin, replied : Not a man, 


nor a dollar ! " It was then considered by either party of 
politicians in the strife that it was a white man s war, and that 
the negro was only considered as a hewer of wood and 
drawer of water for the army. Notwithstanding this view 
of the negro s position, many of them were eager to take 
part in the fray. They bided their time, and the sequel is 
known throughout the civilized world. 

In the fall of 1862, we, with thousands of other colored 
citizens, were drafted in the spade and shovel brigade, throw 
ing up entrenchments to protect Louisville from the antici 
pated attack of General Bragg s Army on the city. I served 
for a time, but was released through the aid of my physician. 
I received a dispatch from Dr. W. R. Revels to come to the 
city of Indianapolis, Ind., and take charge of a school. I 
immediately left for that city and engaged in teaching a 
school, which was partly supported by the Quaker Friends 
and partly by private subscriptions, for the Hoosier State 
had not, at that time, provided public schools for colored 
children. The school was largely composed of contraband 
children, as General Butler termed them, whose parents 
followed in the wake of the army and crossed the Ohio 
River into Indiana. 


At the solicitation of Dr. Revels, Sidney S. Hinton, and 
other friends, I closed my school and accepted the commis 
sion of recruiting sergeant, under Col. Condee, for the 55th 
Massachusetts Colored Regiment. I went into Kentucky for 
volunteers and had hundreds of applicants, but, through the 
interference of the officials at headquarters, I failed t get a 
man enrolled in Louisville. These officials were so-called 
Union men, dressed in the livery of Uncle Sam, but oppos- 



ing such aid as was necessary to help save the country. 
They told me that there would be no quarters shown negro 
soldiers by the Rebels, and that Massachusetts had no right 
to send agents into Kentucky for recruits, and that the ne 
gro s place was in the hospitals as nurses, attending the sick 
and wounded. They advised me to leave the State, for the 
feeling was so strong against us that they could not protect 
us. With this treatment, I left my wife and children, re 
turned to Indiana, visited Jeffersonville, New Albany, and 
Charleston, succeeded in recruiting and enrolling about one 
hundred men for the 55th Massachusetts Regiment, gave 
them transportation to Camp Morton, Indianapolis, and then 
resigned my commission, as Union soldiers at that stage of 
the war refused to protect us. My family was so much an 
noyed by threat, caused by my action, that I authorized my 
wife to sell our property and come to Indianapolis. We 
moved there and returned at the close of the war. 

During our stay in the Hoosier capital we made many 
friends, and many families moved there from Kentucky. 

Our masonic relation was very pleasant while there. We 
affiliated with the craft, and was present at the organization 
of the Grand Chapter of Indiana, by the Most Excellent 
Grand High Priest Wm. Darns, of Cincinnati, and Most Ex 
cellent John G. Britton, Sidney S. Hinton, Wm. Waldon, 
and others. 

Camp Morton contained recruits for the 55th Massachu 
setts and the 28th Indiana Colored Volunteers, with Dr. R. 
W. Revels, examining sergeant. The boys made Indian 
apolis lively while there in camp. One memorable inci 
dent connected with ourselves and the boys I must relate. 
The young musical friends of Dr. Revels church, assisted 
by Prof. George W. Stewart, now of Fort Smith, Ark., 
Barney Hicks, the renowned minstrel, and myself, as con- 


ductor, gave a concert. It may be remembered that du 
ring the war times it was dangerous for a man to sympathize 
with the Rebels and the cause of the South, especially 
among negro soldiers. Barney Hicks, in a discussion, had 
espoused the cause of the South. The soldier boys had 
heard of it and they visited the concert in crowds. When. 
Barney appeared on the stage, they made a rush for him, 
but he escaped from a rear window, jumping some ten feet 
to the ground. A soldier with a dirk-knife in hand was after 
him. He was so enraged at missing Hicks that he threw his 
dirk upon the top of our rented piano and cut a large piece 
out of it. They broke up the concert, and we were in 
trouble on account of the piano, but through the influence 
of Dr. Revels we were saved damages. 


The treatment of colored citizens by Home Guards was 
very cruel in 1861. They were not allowed on the streets 
after 8 o clock without a pass, and many were flogged for 
being out. This treatment became unbearable, especially 
when it was performed by Union soldiers. The writer of 
this sketch was, at that time, a correspondent for the 
Christian Recorder, of Philadelphia, Rev. Elisha Weaver, 
editor. We wrote up this treatment for that paper, and it 
was published, and copies sent to Hon. Charles Sumner, who 
had it read in the Senate, and it created considerable ex 
citement and debate, especially among the Kentucky repre 
sentatives. It had ks desired effect, and there was no more 
flogging by patrolling Union soldiers. The Congressional 
records will verify this statement. An amusing incident oc 
curred along with this raid of the Home Guards. Grand 
Master of Masons, Most Worshipful Henry Spencer, of St. 


Louis, Mo., was on a special visit to this city and the craft, 
As all of our meetings were suspended at the hall, we held 
a private meeting at the writer s house. After adjournment, 
as the brethren entered the street, this military patrol came 
dashing along; the brethren spied them, and it was really 
amusing and laughable to see their coat-tails standing out in 
the breeze, while they made for the alleys and hiding-places. 


In the spring of 1865 I received a call to Kansas, by my 
esteemed friend and brother, Rev. John Turner. I located 
at the city of Leaven worth, was employed as a teacher in 
the public schools of that city, but partly supported by the 
American Missionary Society, and remained there about 
fifteen months. The Hon. Judge Brewer, now Judge of the 
United States Supreme Court, was President of the School 
Board. Among my associate teachers were Prof. Charles 
Langton, Mrs. S. Douglass, wife of Capt. Ford Douglass, 
and Mrs. Margaret Morris, sister of Prof. John MitchelL 
My stay in Kansas was a very pleasant one, and I formed 
the acquaintance of many excellent families, viz. : Thomas 
Newton, Samuel Jordan, Hiram Young, Josephine Mahoney,. 
Mr. Nesbit, Jones, Quinns, and Franklins. 


The noted distinction of officer of the day was conferred 
upon Capt. Ford Douglass and Capt. Mathews. I had the 
pleasure of dining with these officers and their families. 
Their menu was a very palatable one, such as was provided 
for white officers. The scene around the fort is a picturesque 
one, and nature seemed to have provided all the beauties of 
the floral kingdom for its adornment. 


We learned, on our introduction into Kansas society, 
that they were not unlike the various communities that we 
had visited. They had their piques and quarrels ; my first 
visit to a public meeting convinced me of this fact. A diffi 
culty, or misunderstanding, between the two churches was 
to have been settled at this meeting. A hall was rented and 
a large number attended. The discussion began, and, as the 
speakers warmed up, bitter words and epithets were used. 
Among the audience was the distinguished lady orator, Miss 
Susan B. Anthony. She took the floor and tried to quell 
the disturbance by her tender and persuasive remarks, but 
to no purpose; the parties threatened to shoot; pistols, 
swords, and chairs were drawn; pandemonium reigned. 
The proprietor put out the lights and I made for a window, 
but a lady held me back. I suppose a limb was saved by 
her effort. We all got out safe and sound. 

The meeting of interest was the first visit of the Hon. 
J. M. Langston to Kansas. I had the honor of being one 
of the committee on reception. Mr. Langston was royally 
received by the citizens of Leavenworth. A hall was rented 
for the delivery of an address. The subject was " The Re 
construction Measures of President Andrew Johnson." Mr. 
Langston bitterly Opposed the measures in his speech. 
Friends of the President were present, who defended his 
views of reconstruction. Quite a stormy debate ensued, 
though Mr. Langston had the best of the discussion. I con 
cluded that the epithet, "Fighting Kansas," was well ap 

I received a commission from Hon. Sidney S. Hinton r 
M. W. G. M. of Masons for the State of Indiana, to rein 
state North Star Lodge, of Leavenworth, and set them to 
work with Capt. Wm. Mathews, W. M. This completed, 
my mission was ended. 


I left Kansas with the intention of returning, as I had 
been selected to teach another term, but on visiting my 
"Old Kentucky Home" friends surrounded me and pre 
vailed on me to settle down in the old State where I had 
labored in the dark days of slavery, and now, as it was a 
free State, I should enjoy its blessings. After considering 
the matter from a business and financial standpoint, I con 
cluded to remain. I sent in my resignation to the President 
of the School Board, Hon. Judge Brewer. It was accepted 
with a regret and wishes that my future might be successful. 


We pulled up stakes at Indianapolis, moved back to 
Louisville, bought property, and began business under very 
favorable circumstances. 

We had no public schools for colored children in 1866. 
The schools were supported by private funds of the patrons. 

The Fraedmen s Bureau schools and the (Ely) American 
Missionary School employed teachers and educated the col 
ored children until the State, by legislative acts, provided 
for the education of colored children in separate schools. 

Gen. Ben. Runkle, of the United States Army, established 
bureau schools in the colored churches. They were largely 
attended by day and night. Private schools were assisted 
from the bureau fund. Jackson-street M. E. Church School 
was taught by Mr. Henry Merriwether and Mrs. Julia Au 
thor; Center-street M. E. Church School by Rev. Wm. 
Butler; Quinn Chapel School by W. H. Gibson. The Amer 
ican Missionary Society erected a building on the corner of 
Broadway and Fourteenth Street. This school was con 
ducted by a corps of white teachers from that society. 



The system of advancing fifty dollars in order that a case 
might be heard in said court was a custom soon after the 
war. Many of our people from the mountains and interior 
part of the State were compelled to come to Louisville in 
order to have their cases litigated, there being no United 
States Circuit Court in their districts. The Ku-klux clans 
were murdering them and pillaging their property, and no 
redress could be obtained, as this large fee demanded made 
it impossible for them to have a hearing, for they were too 
poor to raise that amount. The citizens of Louisville called 
public meetings in Quinn Chapel and the Green-street Bap 
tist Church. Committees were appointed to wait on Judge 
Ballard and the United States Attorney to protest against 
the rule of the court as oppressive to this people. They 
were courteously received and the matter presented. After 
a fair and legal explanation by the court the matter was so 
adjusted as to give all litigants a hearing, the court being sat 
isfied that the case demanded it. 


I was appointed mail agent under President Grant s ad 
ministration, and served for eight months under very trying 
circumstances. The first and second day s trip was attended 
with great excitement. As the first negro mail agent in the 
State, I was equal to Barnum s animal show, for the people at 
every station gathered by hundreds, and climbed upon the 
cars to get a view of the black animal who dared to invade 
their territory. 

At the end of the route, Mount Vernon, the people 


turned out to hang me. They followed me to the post- 
office and waited for me to enter the hotel across the way for 
lodgings, but I had made other arrangements and disap 
pointed them. 

The arrangement of the mob for mob it was that if I 
attempte d to enter the hotel the hanging would commence, 
and it would have been accomplished with dispatch. 

I engaged board with a colored farmer, Walker New- 
comb. He was an industrious and brave man, a blacksmith 
by trade, and a partner with his former master. The mob 
promised that if I remained with my own people I would not 
be disturbed ; but they did not keep their promise, for they 
annoyed me with notes, giving me so many days to leave the 
road, or make my peace with God, signed K. K. K. 

At the expiration of eight months I was transferred to the 
Louisville and Lexington route. The second day out we 
were attacked by three of the clan, at a lonely station, North 
Benson, between Frankfort and Lexington, a chosen day for 
the murderous purpose snowing, raining, and hailing the 
worst day of the year. 

At the station, one jumped aboard of the mail coach and 
endeavored to throw me out, beating and bruising me con 
siderably, but failed in his attempt. His. two pals were 
waiting on the platform, with drawn pistols, to shoot me as 
I fell out, as they expected; but as God would have it, they 
missed their aim, and I was saved. With three coaches of 
passengers, conductor, and train hands, no one came to my 
relief, and it was only the mercy of God that saved me. They 
riddled the car with bullets, but missed me. 

The authorities at Washington were notified of the attack 
on the United States Mail Agent, and a squad of United 
States soldiers were dispatched from the fort to accompany 


me, and for three months I was escorted by the blue coats 
of Uncle Sam while I performed my duties. Many threats 
were made, and great excitement existed during my stay on 
this route. On several occasions I feared a collision between 
the military and the mob that gathered at the stations, for 
twitting the soldiers for protecting a negro. I was convinced 
that under the pressure some one would be killed, and also 
the strain upon the nerves of my wife and children reasoned 
with me that the sacrifice was greater than the occasion 
called for. The soldiers were withdrawn from the train. 
Promises were made by the leading authorities of the State 
to provide protection, but I proposed to retire from the situ 
ation when the soldiers retired, for I had but little confidence 
in those promises, so I resigned. 


In 1865 the Freedmen s Bank was established in Louis 
ville, with a mixed board of directors, and a white cashier. 
I often assisted Cashier Burkholder when busy or absent 
from the city. I had charge of the bank when he met with 
his sad fate, of being drowned or burned up on the ill-fated 
steamer, United States, plying between Louisville and Cin 
cinnati, when she collided with the steamer America. He 
had been on a trip to Ohio to see his family, but never re 
turned to the bank. I remained in charge until the board 
met and selected a cashier, Mr. Horace Morris. I was his 
assistant when the bank closed. 


The first colored musical society of Louisville was organized 
in the school-room of the writer, Dec. 1852. The Fourth-street 
Methodist Church Choir had given a series of concerts, con- 


ducted by W. H. Gibson, assisted by Prof. Henry Williams, 
Samuel White, and several German performers (instru 
mental). They concluded to organize a musical society for 
their further improvement. A meeting was called and the 
organization completed. Among those of the organization 
were Messrs. George Thomas, Jesse Davis, Peter Hayes, 
Benjamin Eubanks, John Jordan, John Collins, Dan Clem- 
mons, Geo. A. Schaefer, R. M. Johnson, J. Tevis, D. Ed- 
dington; Mesdames Jane Christopher, Letha Ellison, Lu- 
cinda Snead, George Thomas, Julia Bullitt Author, Belle 
Adams, Miss Thomas, and others. This society made rapid 
improvement in music. At times they gave concerts for 
benevolent purposes, and also improved the musical taste in 
several of our churches. But few of this organization are 
now living, but the spirit and love of music then manifested 
has been inherited by their children. 

The first musical instrument introduced into a colored 
church in this city was in 1847 by the writer. The singing 
was led by a violin. The old sisters and brothers declared 
that the officers had admitted the devil into the church, but 
they became used to it and seemed to admire the change. 
At this writing there are but few churches that have not pipe 
organs and splendid choirs. 

The writer was attacked through the columns of our 
church magazine in the year 1854 by the Rev. Thomas 
Strother for this trespass upon the dignity and solemnity of 
the church. Several articles were written, pro and con., 
but the progressive age of music triumphed amid the pious 
opposition that then assailed it. Upon the introduction of 
the first organ in Quinn Chapel the sisters threatened to 
throw it into the street, so we abandoned the instrument for 



The first musical festival of the Colored Musical Associa 
tion of Louisville, Ky., was held in May, 1880. W. H. 
Gibson, Sr. , President; N. R. Harper, Musical Director. 
The association was composed of about two hundred sing 
ers from the various church choirs and public schools, sup 
ported by an orchestra from Detroit, Mich., led by Prof. 
Johnson. They gave ample satisfaction in the support of 
the choruses and solo accompaniments, as they were profes 
sional musicians. Miss Eliza Cowan, of Chicago, 111., the 
leading soprano, came highly recommended as a vocalist. 
She sustained her reputation as such, and left us with the 
highest honors. Mrs. Mary V. Smith and Mrs. C. M. Bry 
ant, organists, were excellent. Prof. N. R. Harper proved 
an efficient leader in chorus singing. This first attempt of a 
grand musical festival proved a financial success, and from a 
musical standard the community expressed the highest 


The Musical Association of Louisville, Ky., held their 
second song festival May 19 and 20, 1881, at Library Hall. 
W. H. Gibson, Sr., President; N. R. Harper, Musical 
Director. It was the desire of the president and the asso 
ciation to make this the grandest festival yet given, and in 
order to do so he made several visits to Cincinnati, O., for 
the purpose of securing the assistance of the Cincinnati 
Choral Association, then in practice, and which had, among 
its members, some celebrities of a very high musical culture. 
The arrangement was completed, as the following letter will 


CINCINNATI, O., March 12, 1881. 
Mr. W. H. Gibson : 

DEAR SIR Your letter of the 6th duly received, and con 
tents read before the members of the society. I am author 
ized to say that we most cheerfully accept the invitation to 
participate in the festival, and hope it may be generally un 
derstood from this letter between all parties that we will be 
present with a good delegation from this city, together with 
their many friends. 

I am, on behalf of the Q. C. C. S., yours, 

Chairman Executive Committee. 

The reputation of Miss A. L. Tilghman, of Washington, 
D. C., as a leading soprano at the Capital City, induced 
the association to secure her services for this occasion. Her 
selections were of the highest order, such as "Aria The 
Flower Girl," by Borzinini; Millard s " Inflammatus," solo, 
and several duets. Her rendition was all that lovers of music 
could desire. She was recalled by the audience after each 

The principal artists of the Louisville Association were as 
follows: Mrs. M. L. Mead, Miss Jennie Wise, Miss V. M. 
Burkes, Mrs. M. V. Smith, Miss S. G. Waters, Miss M. 
Henry, Miss M. Robinson, Mrs. C. M. Bryant, Mrs. Belle 
Worley, Anna and Sue Talbot, Belle Adams, Miss Lou 
Thompson, of New Albany, Ind. ; the Gibson family W. 
H. Gibson, Sr., W. H. Gibson, Jr., of St. Louis, Mo. ; Miss 
Isabella, M. Jane, and Lucretia Gibson; Frank Thomas Glee 
Club Messrs. Frank Thomas, J. Miller, P. A. Thomas, J. 
O. Banion, N. P. Grant, and John Reynold. Prof. J. R. 
Cunningham s celebrated orchestra furnished string and brass 
instrumental music. 


Dayton, O. 


Cairo, 111. 
N. V. P. 


The following were the officers of the Festival Executive 
Committee: J. W. Dorsey, J. N. Caldwell, T. N. Bailey, H. 
C. Weeden, G. T. Thomas, W. H. Lawson, B. J. Nichols, 
S. Hayes, W. Adams, and N. N. Newman. 

The Choral Association, of Cincinnati, O., presented the 
cantata, " Esther, the Beautiful Queen," with the following 
staff of officers : Musical Director, Mr. P. L. Furgurson ; 
Assistant Musical Director, Mr. J. M. Lewis; Pianist, Mrs. 
A. E. Baltimore; Organist, Mr. F. C. Lewis; Assistant 
Organist, Mr. Al. Quarles; Costumer, Mrs. Julia A. Rice; 
Stage Manager, Mr. T. J. Monroe. 

Cast of Characters. 

Queen Esther Miss Ella Buckner. 

King Ahasuerus Mr. P. L. Furgurson. 

Mordecai Mr. J. M. Lewis. 

First Maid of Honor Miss Cora Watson. 

With a retinue of attendants. 

The following selections were introduced during the ban 
quet scenes of the cantata: Bass solo, " Down in the Cel 
lar s Depths," Mr. T. Small; solo, " Mandolita," Miss M. 
Fowler; bass solo, "The Toast," W. J. Ross; solo, "Softly, 
Softly," Miss Hattie Holmes; quintette, " Father, Guide 
Us," from Belshazzar, Misses Barrett and Fowler, Messrs. 
C. Henson, Small, and Quarles; "Miserere," from Trova- 
tore, Miss Cora L. Watson and Mr. T. J. Monroe, assisted 
by Miss Hattie Harper, Mrs. M. Williams, and Messrs. L. 
M. Lewis, Thornton, Small, and Quarles. The artists ex 
celled themselves in the performance of this sacred cantata. 
Their costumes were tastefully selected, and their songs and 
performances in the various roles were such as to attract the 
admiration of the most technique of the theatrical assemblies. 


This rare treat, brought forth by the combined efforts of the 
musical lovers of Louisville, Cincinnati, Washington, D. C., 
and New Albany, has been far-reaching in the development 
of this fine art in our community. 


Fifth-street Baptist Choir The concerts and musical en 
tertainments given by this choir have always been of the 
highest order. We take great pleasure in making special 
mention of this association as conducted by the late Madi 
son Minnis, with Miss Martha Morton as organist, also de 
ceased, supported by Mesdames M. L. Mead, Hutchinson 
and sister, and Messrs. W. H. Stewart (successor to Mr. 
Minnis), Samuel Jordan, J. L. Moody, Will. L. Gibson, and 
others. During Mr. Minnis charge of this choir they made 
a tour to Cincinnati, O., and Cleveland, O. The trip was a 
pleasant one. and the members were the recipients of many 
eulogies for their musical performances. 

Green-street Baptist Choir This choir ranks among the 
leading musical associations, with our old friend, George 
Thomas, conductor (successor to Mr. Jesse Davis). They 
have a fine and powerful organ, with Mrs. Gertie Hutchin- 
.son, the organist, who skillfully manipulates the finger-board. 
The visitors to that church can sit and muse upon the joyful 
strains of these earthly choristers. 

Jacob-street Tabernacle Choir This choir ranks among the 
leading musical associations of the country. 


Madame Seleka, queen of staccato, and S. W. Williams, 
baritone, made their debut to a Louisville audience June, 
1888. The writer, having been concerned in most all of the 


musical enterprises of this city, and being the leader of 
Quinn Chapel Choir for more than thirty-five years, and 
being about to retire, felt anxious that the church of his 
long and arduous labors should have an organ second to 
none among our congregations. His wishes were made 
known to the board and granted, under the administration 
of Rev. Levi Evans. A committee, composed of Prof. W. 
H. Perry, George Caldwell, and Miss Martha Webster, 
visited Pilcher & Sons organ manufactory and selected an 
instrument to cost eight hundred dollars, with the latest im 
provements. A concert was decided upon. The leader 
opened correspondence with Madame Seleka and husband, 
who had recently returned from Europe, and were elec 
trifying the country with their artistical performances. We 
learned their terms, an agreement was entered into, and 
a concert arranged for Louisville for the benefit of the organ. 
They arrived, and were our guests. 

The largest hall in the city was rented for the concert, 
the citizens turned out en masse, and it was conceded to be 
the grandest concert ever given in our city, both in numbers 
and artistic skill. The lady was the finest and most accom 
plished that we had ever heard in this community. Mr. Wil 
liams baritone was complete, and as a soloist his style and 
enunciations were pure. 

A second concert was given at the church, and it was 
crowded also. Our local talent assisted, and gave prestige 
to the occasion. Mrs. M. L. Mead, Mrs. M. V. Smith, 
Miss Lottie Bryant, Mrs. Gertie Hutchinson, accompanist, 
and W. H. Gibson, conductor. Financially the concert was 
a success, the receipts half paid for the organ, and the bal_ 
ance was raised by the Ladies Organ Association, Mrs. Nel 
lie Bibb, President; Mrs. Virginia Thompson, Treasurer; 
Miss Laura Douglass, Secretary, and Rev. J. Abbey, Pastor. 



After the passage of the fifteenth amendment to the Con 
stitution by Congress it was in order for colored citizens of 
Louisville to have a jubilee celebration. Mass-meetings 
were called at several of the churches to make arrangements, 
and committees appointed. Rev. H. J. Young was the 
chosen orator of the day, with Miss Laura Claget as the God 
dess of Liberty. The procession was an immense throng of col 
ored citizens, with excursion parties from surrounding cities, 
accompanied with bands of music and banners, with many 
designs representing freedom and progression versus the 
condition of slavery days. A Fifteenth Amendment song was 
composed by W. H. Gibson, and sung at the Court Square, 
where, for the first time, a stand was erected. Ten thous 
and people were gathered to hear speeches and music. We 
had seen, on past occasions, on the same square, some horri 
ble scenes, slaves sold on the court-house steps, negroes 
hung and burned, also the forms of ghastly Irishmen burned 
by the Know-nothing mobs on Bloody Monday, but the con 
trast of that day s thrilling jubilee the completion of Amer 
ican citizenship for the negro seemed a fitting retribution 
for the past horrors perpetrated and inflicted by the inhuman 
monster slavery. 

The following is the song composed by W. H. Gibson, 
Sr. , which was sung by five thousand voices on the day of 
the celebration : 

Come all ye Republicans, faithful and true, 

Here is a work for you : 
The Fifteenth Amendment has fought its way through 

True as the boys in blue. 
The Democrat party its race has run, 

To give way for an era that freedom has won. 
Bring out your gun ! Bring out your gun ! 

Bring them, ye brave and true. 


Colored citizens, prepare ye; your manhood s complete, 

God grant that " we all may have peace." 
The ballot-box is open to all of our race, 

Put in your snowy flakes; 
For the Republican party will vote in a mass, 

For they have guarded well " Thermopylae s Pass." 
Vote for them long, vote for them strong, 

Vote for the brave and true. 

Songs of exultation we gladly will sing 

For the twenty-eight States so true ; 
For the Fifteenth Amendment s a mighty big thing, 

The Democrats know it is true. 
Kentucky neutrality, we can not define it, 

The Fifteenth Amendment has opened a mine in it 
And blown it sky high ! and blown it sky high! 

Sing it ye brave and true. 

My Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, each of them 

Opposed its ratification ; 
California, Oregon, Tennessee with them, 

Kentucky makes up the seven. 
But the twenty-eight States, yes, thirty of them, 

Have put to rest the unjust seven. 
So let them writhe ! Let them writhe ! 

Writhe in their agony. 

The ratification has made the great Nation 

More honored, more just and good ; 
The lowly will praise her, the great God will bless her, 

Her enemies stand in awe ; 
And if the old flag is e er torn from the mast, 

Up defenders will rise as they have in the past, 
And fly to their arms ! Fly to their arms ! 

To save the dear old flag. 

Our country s flag we do revere, 

For we love the Constitution ; 
The Declaration doth declare, 

All men are born free and equal. 
The Fifteenth Amendment hath abolished caste, 

Servitude, color, are buried at last, 
Never to rise ! Never to rise ! 

Under the Constitution. 

I 2 



The Independent Sons of Honor being desirous of having 
Mr. Douglass address the colored citizens of Louisville solic 
ited the writer to correspond with him and make such ar 
rangements as would suit him. I opened correspondence, 
and, after several letters had passed, the invitation was 
accepted on terms suitable to him. The following is his let 
ter of acceptance : 

WASHINGTON, D. C., April 2, 1873. 
Wm. H. Gibson, Esq. 

MY DEAR SIR Your letter accepting my terms is at hand. 
I will endeavor to be in Louisville on the 2oth inst., and will 
be ready to unite with your celebration on the 2ist of April. 
Please inform me, without delay, the name and address to 
which you will expect me to report on the 2oth. Hoping 
for a successful celebration of one of the grandest facts in 
the history of our country. I am, dear sir, 

Very truly yours, 


A committee composed of George Buckner, James Graves, 
Vincent Helm, W. H. Gibson, Isaac Curtis, and others, 
received Mr. Douglass at the depot with carriages and a 
band of music. He was escorted to the residence of Mrs. 
Lucretia Morris, on Seventh Street. There he received the 
courtesies of the citizens of Louisville, colored and white. 
The Hon. Judge J. M. Harlan tendered him his private car 
riage and horses for his visit through the city. A proces 
sion was formed of societies and citizens, and they marched 
to the Exposition, where an immense throng of people filled 
the building. Mr. Douglass made a fine address, such as he 
was capable of making, and it was published in our daily 


papers. He remarked that " the building was so large and 
fhe tumult so great that it was as the roaring of Niagara." 
His voice was inadequate to fill the building. 


The Kentuckian was issued in the seventies, Mr. Horace 
Morris being its editor. It was published for several months. 

The Planet was published by the Planet Printing Co. 

Zion s Banner was published in 1881, with H. C. Weedon 
as its editor. 

Christian Index. 

The Bulletin was published by the Adams Brothers, John 
and Cyrus. This paper was very ably edited and received a 
large subscription. It was a paper that advocated the cause 
of the negro and the principles of Republicanism. The pro 
prietors moved to Chicago and the paper is yet in existence, 
the name having been changed. An incident in relation to 
Cyrus Adams and the study of the German language occurred 
here during his study under a German teacher. A large 
class of students attended, who were members of the first 
families of the city. The teacher said that his progress was 
rapid, and he attracted attention by the excellence of his 
recitations. The teacher also said that he was much aston 
ished one day about the close of the term when he informed 
him that he was a newspaper man and one of the editors of 
The Bulletin. So the term was closed, and of all the pupils 
attending none of them knew that Adams was a colored man 
except the teacher, who found it out by mere accident. Had 
it been otherwise, the white pupils would have been horrified 
at the idea of a colored student belonging to the class. Mr. 
Adams made a trip to Europe, studied there, and returned 
and taught here in our High School. 


The Ohio Falls Express, edited by Dr. H. Fitzbutler, is 
one of the oldest colored papers in the State. It has been 
suspended during the Doctor s absence in Europe. 

The American Baptist, W. H. Stewart, editor, represents 
the interests of the Baptist denomination, and is very ably 
edited. It is in its sixteenth year. Mr. Stewart is also a 
politician, and is always found in the advance of all questions 
pertaining to our race. 

The Informer, published by H. H. Hatcher, is a spicy 
little sheet. 


Our Sunday-school picnics were held on the Fourth of 
July, as it was a National holiday. The slave, as well as his 
master, had the privileges of that day. We would assemble 
our children at the churches and march to the grove, but 
not without one or two policemen, at two dollars a day, to 
see that we behaved ourselves and that no incendiary 
speeches were made. At the last picnic we held before the 
war I took an active part, as usual, when I arrived at the 
grove. The speakers were our ministers, teachers, and our 
old friend, W. H. Bulkley, Presbyterian (white), but at this 
time we had a speaker that was not on the programme a 
brother who was a slave, belonging to a widow near Hobb s 
Station, but was hired out in Louisville as a carpenter. He 
was a member of my Sunday-school and desired to speak. 
The brethren objected, and feared that he might say some 
thing that would harm us, as the officers were there, also a 
number of white spectators, but I insisted for them to give 
him a chance. When his time came we gave strict atten 
tion. He began by saying : 



We hab sembled to celebrate the Fourth ob July Inde 
pendence Day it is called but I never could larn whar de 
independence comes in. We are here sembled in dis grove 
to yourselves, cept dese paderrols, who is here to watch us. 
Now, whar is yo independence ? Little childens, dis is not 
yo day, but you will hab a day, for de prophets say so, de pos- 
sels say so, and God say so. You read yo Bible and it tells 
you dat God made all men free and ecal, and he made dem all 
ob de same blood, only one white in de face, anodder black 
in de face, and anodder red in de face, but dey were all 
bredden and ecal ; but man, being so wise, hab changed it, 
and to-day we are not ecal, but de day is comin when you will 
be as free and ecal as Gineral Washington. Den you will 
hab a day ! But dis is not yo day, little chillen, but you will 
hab a day. God haste it on is my prayer. Amen. 

This was the speech of the day, and created more com 
ment than all the other speeches that were made. Several 
of the teachers hid behind the large trees, peeping out to see 
what the white police would do if they would stop him ; but 
they seemed to enjoy it. We met the same brother, during 
the war, in Indianapolis. He went over with the first lot of 
fugitives that crossed the river in the wake of the army. 
We met him several years later and he had, by his industry, 
acquired some property and a comfortable home. 

The colored citizens of Louisville had no gala day to cel 
ebrate save the ist of August in commemoration of the 
West Indies Emancipation of 1834 and in order to enjoy 
this pleasure they were compelled to seek other States whose 
sympathy was in touch with this grand achievement. At 
this time of the year the boating season was over, and those 
whose privilege it was to enjoy these excursions made up 
their parties and journeyed to Cincinnati, O., Cleveland, O., 
or Canada. Cincinnati being the nearest point, the largest 


gatherings were held there. Rooms were engaged weeks in 
advance at the Hotel Dumar, the finest and grandest hotel 
established and conducted by colored men in this country at 
that time. John Whets and R. H. Gleaves were the pro 

On the day appointed for the celebration a large grove 
was selected, and there would be thousands in attendance. 
Speeches were made by such orators as Messrs. John I. 
Gains, Peter H. Clark, Ford Douglass, W. H. Day, Fred 
erick Douglass, and others. 

Xenia, O., was also noted as a pleasure resort for those 
parties. About three miles beyond the city, on the grounds 
nearly adjoining Wilberforce University, was another hotel, 
kept by Mr. Anderson Lewis, a noted steward and musician. 
Large parties and picnics were given there, and those pres 
ent indulged in buggy-riding and such other pleasures as are 
sought at watering-places. It was, in fact, the " Saratoga " 
for our pleasure-seeking people. The springs yielded an 
abundance of fine water, containing various medicinal prop 
erties. The beautiful scenery that surrounded the locality 
was, to those pleasure-seekers, a little paradise. Yet, with 
all this pleasure, there was something that was not in har 
mony with its close proximity to Wilberforce University. 
The president, Bishop D. A. Payne, and the faculty, remon 
strated against the balls and dances and seeming imprudence 
of the visitors, and of the detrimental influence it might ex 
ercise against the institution. Time and patience relieved 
them of their forebodings, as Mr. Lewis closed his hotel and 
pleasure-grounds, and now, to the surprise of many and the 
delight of the faculty and Christian community, Bishop Arnet 
occupies and owns the premises. The writer has been a 
visitor under each proprietor, and knows whereof he speaks. 



Amid the restrictions that surrounded our people during 
the forties and fifties, there was a thirst for light, and there 
seemed to be a glimmer of hope pervading certain classes. 
The free men and women associated with the slaves as rela 
tives. A free father and a slave mother, or vice versa, caused 
an anxiety to be free; and the little private schools among 
the free, though only by sufferance, and often by stealth, 
caused an unrest that pervaded many communities. At 
Lexington and Frankfort in 1859, through the solicitation of 
friends there, we ventured to open a branch school. At 
Lexington we taught the common branches, and at Frank 
fort we taught a music class. Our school at Louisville was in 
charge of my wife and Mr. George A. Schafer. Mrs. Gib 
son taught needle-work and dress-making. Samples of her 
work can be seen in some of the houses of the oldest citi 
zens. Mr. George A. Schafer was for many years in the 
postal service a letter-carrier. The political excitement of 
those days caused us to close our efforts in this direction. 

An educational convention was called in the summer of 
1869. The friends of education, by delegations, white and 
colored, took a very active part in the deliberations. The 
delegates were addressed by Prof. Fairchild, J. G. Fee, Pres 
ident of Berea College; J. M. Langston, Esq., Dr. Martin 
R. Delany, Rev. H. J. Young, and others. At the conven 
tion a State Board of Education was organized, for the pur 
pose of forming the State into school districts, and furnish 
ing teachers, under the supervision of the Freedmen s Bu 
reau. The following officers were chosen: W. H. Gibson, 
President; Q. B. Jones, Vice President; John Morris, Sec 
retary and Treasurer; Isaiah Mitchell, Traveling Agent and 


Organizer of County and District Schools. Many schools 
were organized and teachers employed. These schools con 
tinued until the State provided for the education of colored 
children under the law, in 1870. 

Rev. R. G. Mortimore established a private school in 
1858, at Asbury Chapel, for advanced classes in algebra, 
geometry, and Latin. A class of young men from my school 
attended, and made rapid progress. Prof. Mortimore was 
tendered the chair of mathematics at Wilberforce University. 
He accepted, and the following class of young men accom 
panied him there: W. P. Annis, W. H. Gibson, Jr., Horace 
Talbot, Henry Pope, Wm. Robinson, and Chas. Logan, 
they being the first from our city to matriculate in that nota 
ble institution. 

The State University, located on Kentucky Street, was or 
ganized in 1879. Prof. W. J. Simmons, the learned Baptist 
divine, was called to take charge, after it had been opened 
for a short time. It has done much for the educational in 
terest of our race in this State and other States. Prof. Sim 
mons seemed to be imbued with the necessities of his people, 
especially in the Baptist denomination. An educated min 
istry was one of their greatest wants. He was to his con 
nection what the late Bishop D. H. Payne was as an educa 
tor to the African M. E. Church. His establishment of Wil 
berforce University has given it prestige throughout the 
universe. Prof. Simmons did not live long after organizing 
this work, but he has laid a foundation for future usefulness 
which that denomination has long since realized. The 
faculty is carefully selected from the various institutions of 
the country. The commencement exercises are good, and 
are always attended with large and appreciative audiences. 
Their graduates are dispersed throughout the State, doing 
ood work in the educational field. 



The Young Men s Christian Association was organized 
through the efforts of Albert Mack and Charles Morris. 
They were influential in bringing many young men into its 
folds, and the organization grew rapidly. Their meetings 
were held in the churches, alternately, on Sunday afternoons. 
Their weekly and monthly meetings were held in Quinn 
Chapel until they had accumulated sufficient means to fit up 
a room, which they did in a short time, as they had seem 
ingly won the hearts of the people. They held public meet 
ings on the street corners, and in the localities of the slums 
of the city, and some of their hearers professed a hope in 
Christ. The public made them a present of a good library. 
They were finally imbued with a spirit to build a hall, Bro. 
Mack acting as collecting agent. He used the money he 
collected in Louisville in paying rents until the treasury was 

The following prominent young men of the city were 
among the members : Albert White, Robinson, Chas. Mor 
ris, Warden Duson, Elder Frank, Bro. Alexander, W. H. 
Gibson, Sr. , and others. 

Bro. Mack left on a collecting tour for a hall and has 
never returned. A number of newspaper articles have ap 
peared against him, disapproving his course. 

The society has been reorganized on a firm basis, with 
excellent officers, and holding relation with the State and 
National Association. It has a good location on Walnut and 
Tenth streets. Their meetings are interesting. They have 
lectures weekly by the best speakers and thinkers of our 
race, and much good has resulted from this organization. 



The Colored Orphans Home, situated on Eighteenth and 
Dumesnil streets, was organized in 1877. This institution 
was brought about through the efforts of two of our oldest 
citizens, Peter Lewis and Shelby Gillespie. They were sex 
tons in the Presbyterian churches of Revs. Dr. Stewart Rob 
inson and Dr. Humphrey. They made their desires known 
to these two divines, who were, in their lifetime, friends to 
the colored people. After they had matured their plans, . 
they called together a number of colored citizens in the ves 
try of Dr. Humphrey s church, where they had his counsel 
and advice. They also met in the vestry of Dr. Robinson s 
church ; and plans were devised by these clergymen and 
financial aid promised when the society was organized. At 
a meeting held in Dr. Humphrey s church temporary officers 
were elected and a committee appointed to draft a constitu 
tion, viz.: W. H. Gibson and Joseph Furgurson. Mr. Gib 
son performed the duties of secretary until the permanent 
officers were chosen. Meetings were held in all of the col 
ored churches, the colored clergy assisting in the work. 
Contributions, from time to time, were raised by them, and 
the benevolent societies subscribed liberally toward its suste 
nance. Our white friends gave liberally, and donated the 
grounds and building for the Home, holding it in trust until 
the society pays the purchase price. The American Mis 
sionary Society donated a third of the sale of the old school 
building toward the purchase of the Home. The Orphans 
Home Society, during these years, has been managed by a 
board of officers chosen from the various churches and socie 
ties. The president has generally been selected from some 


of our white friends, and the vice president from the col 
ored citizens. Many children have been cared for during 
these years and comfortable homes secured among responsi 
ble families. The ladies of Louisville have taken great 
pride in the Home, and have worked incessantly for its sup 
port by holding dinners, suppers, festivals, etc., and every 
imaginable means adopted that would bring money for its 
support. The following ladies have been foremost in their 
efforts to sustain the Home from its earliest inception : Mes- 
dames Lucretia Morris. Isabella Belle, M. J. Gibson, Fran 
ces McCauley, McKamy, Worley, Minnis, Murphy, Stewart, 
Birney, Bullitt, and many others. The teachers of the pub 
lic schools have also rendered efficient service by collections 
from their pupils and from public dinners and suppers. Mr. 
J. C. C. McKinley is its presiding officer at the present time 
of writing. He is a principal in one of our public schools. 

St. James Old Folks Home was organized by a number 
of our citizens for the benefit of our old dependent citizens. 
It did not meet with the success it merited. The officers 
made a contract for a building in Portland, made a payment 
on the property, occupied it for a time, but failed to meet 
the notes, and the property was lost to them. This society 
has been reorganized and fallen into other hands. The 
officers are young and energetic, have purchased property on 
Greenwood Avenue, made a partial payment, and the ladies 
of the city have organized clubs, and propose to complete 
the payment in a short time. They raised by public dona 
tions on Sunday, February 28, 1897, $578.20. The prop 
erty cost $2,750. 

The Louisville Colored Cemetery Company was organized 
in 1887 by the efforts of Bishop W. H. Miles, of the C. M. 
E. Church, and a few of his immediate friends. Several 


meetings were called at the Center-street Church, and alter 
nated at several other churches, in order to bring the matter 
before the people, showing them the necessity of having a 
cemetery exclusively their own. After organizing and elect 
ing officers, a committee was appointed to visit the legisla 
ture and obtain a charter, and it was granted. Books were 
opened for stockholders, shares $25 each. Thirty-three 
acres of ground were selected and purchased on Goss Avenue. 
The company has been well patronized by the citizens. Lots 
have been purchased, monuments erected, walks and plats 
beautifully arranged, and it has been paid for in the course 
of eight years, and is .now paying a dividend to the stock 
holders. The following are the officers : A. J. Bibb, Presi 
dent; H. C. Weeden, Secretary; Dr. Felix Fowler, Treas 


This musical association of lady artists gave an interesting 
muiscale at the Episcopal Church of Our Merciful Saviour. 
It was something new in musical circles. The entire 
musical clefs were performed by ladies, as follows: First 
and second sopranos, first and second altos, first and second 
contraltos. Their selections consisted of numbers from 
Lohengrin, Chopin, and Schubert, and they were well per 
formed before a large and appreciative audience. This club 
is composed of the best female musical talent of this city. 
The following ladies are its officers : Miss Lucretia M. Gib 
son, President; Miss Sophia Johnson, Secretary; Miss Sarah 
E. Bell, Treasurer; Miss Eliza Davenport, Pianist and 


In 1854 was elected delegate to the National Compact, 
Masonic Grand Lodge, at Cincinnati, O. 


In 1859 was elected Grand Junior Warden, Grand Lodge 
of Ohio, at Xenia. 

In January, 1869, was elected by the colored citizens of 
Louisville a delegate to the National Convention, at Wash 
ington, 1). C. 

Visited the Judiciary Committee of Congress with colored 

Was elected delegate to the Republican State Convention, 
at Frankfort, Ky. 

In 1870 first colored mail agent appointed from Kentucky. 
Plot of Ku-klux to assassinate him. 

September 7, 1871, appointed on secret service to visit 
Frankfort for witnesses in the Trumbo murder case by 
United States Attorney. 

April, 1871, elected State Grand Master of the United 
Brothers of Friendship, and served five years. 

May, 1872, elected delegate to the General Conference 
of the A. M. E. Church, at Nashville, Tenn. 

June, 1872, elected delegate to the National Republican 
Convention, at Philadelphia, Pa., from the Fifth District of 

In 1872 visited and was introduced to President Grant by 
Gen. Benjamin Bristow. 

In 1874 was appointed U. S. guager under President U. 
S. Grant s administration. 

In 1875 fi rs t National Convention United Brothers of 
Friendship convened in Louisville, Ky. 

In 1876 was elected National Grand Master United Broth 
ers of Friendship, at St. Louis, Mo., and served four years. 

In 1878 was elected National Grand Commander of 
Knights of Friendship at the first National Grand Lodge, 
held in Louisville, Ky. , and served four years. 


In 1880 was elected Secretary of Consolidated Lodge, 
Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, and served eight 

July, 1880, received first and highest promotion for meri 
torious service at the National Grand Lodge, held at Indian 
apolis, Ind. an honorary membership for life. 

In 1885 was a delegate to the Natio-nal Connectional and 
Historical Society, at Nashville, Tenn. 

July, 1880, appointed Treasurer of the Mutual Aid Asso 
ciation United Brothers of Friendship, and served three 

July, 1882, married to Miss Jennie Lewis, of Louisville, 

In 1883 was elected President of the Mutual Aid Asso 
ciation, and served three years. 

In 1887 was elected Treasurer of the Louisville Colored 
Cemetery Company. 

In 1896 was appointed National Grand Trustee, Knights 
of Friendship, at Grand Session, St. Louis, Mo. 

In 1897, wrote and published the History of the U. B. F. 
and S. M. T. 

Served for several years as trustee of Wilberforce LTni- 


Hon. Frederick Douglass, Hon. Charles Raymond, Dr. 
Martin R. Delany, Hon. H. C. P . Pinchback, Hon. Alex. 
Barbour, Hon. J. M. Langston, Hon. O. O. Benjamin, Hon. 
Booker Washington. 



The Lord will come from Heaven, 

Will you give Him your heart ? 
To resurrect His people, 

Will you give Him your heart ? 
And execute God s judgment, 

Will you give Him your heart ? 
We don t want you to fall by the way. 

He will come with a mighty shouting, 

Will you give Him your heart ? 
When He descends from Heaven, 

Will you give Him your heart ? 
And the voice of the great archangel, 

Will you give Him your heart ? 
We don t want you to fall by the way. 

[NOTE This song was written on the cars coming from Boston to 
New York, over the Falls River Line, by Elder F. A. Boyd, the first 
army chaplain of the Kentucky Mulattoes. Elder Boyd was a brother 
of Marshall and Geo. Taylor. We insert these lines to show that the 
three brothers were inclined to literary pursuits. This one has always 
been of an eccentric nature. He presented me with this composition.] 

It may not be out of place for me to close this history 
with several important events that have come under my 
notice since I commenced it, and to contrast them with the 
introduction of this work, for the reader will observe that 
there is much gloom and discouragement in the early pic 
ture drawn of the misery and distress attending the race in 
the early forties; but in the nineties, a half century later, a 
complete revolution has been worked, and it should convince 
those who are so impatient and seemingly discouraged, that, 
looking back and comparing those revolutionary changes 
with the past, " God has led us on a way that we knew not." 

The events are the Educational Convention of the Minis 
ters of the A. M. E. Church, the State Teachers Associa 
tion of Kentucky, and the Negro Day at the Nashville, 
Term., Centennial. 



This body met in Asbury Chapel, June i, 2, and 3, 1897. 
I attended a part of two sessions. The convention was pre 
sided over by that eminent divine, Rt. Rev. Bishop Salters. 
Papers were read and discussed by the members, the sub 
jects being such as pertained to our interest. The discus 
sion threw light and animation into the participants and its 
hearers, and gave us ample opportunity to retrospect the 
past and compare it with the present. 

My semi-centennial year would seemingly be incomplete 
without this scene, and especially as it occurred in the old 
building where I begun my public career fifty years ago. 
Then it was chaotic darkness, so to speak. We were feel 
ing our way, aiming for a higher plane of civilization. 
Could we have enjoyed the pleasure and companionship of 
those erudite and distinguished scholars, our church in this 
city and State would be, at this time, a leading factor in the 
educational work of the State, and her academies and col 
leges would have been disseminating knowledge to the masses 
instead of just now beginning the enterprise. From the re 
ports, however, we learn that Wayman Institute has a bright 
future, and may yet become the seat of learning for African 
Methodism in Kentucky. 

JUNE 5, 1897. 

We live in a great age, it may be truly said of the closing 
scenes of the nineteenth century. One hundred years ago, in 
Tennessee, the negro was reckoned but a degree higher than 
the brute, but time has developed his superiority above the 
brute creation. Eighteen hundred and ninety-seven finds the 






negro vicing with his white brother in art, science, and lit 
erary pursuits in the "Temple of Fame." The Exposition 
exhibits every conceivable skill and genius of the Anglo- 
Saxon. The negro of thirty years birth climbs the ladder of 
fame, round by round, until he is finally inspired with the 
idea that he will reach the summit. 

The exhibit in the Negro Building convinced the most 
skeptical that the negro was not only thinking, but had put 
his thoughts into practice. Nearly every profession is there 
represented, and in a manner that bespeaks volumes for the 

Whatever might have been the trouble with the local 
committees or commissions, the parade and the exhibits at 
the Negro Building were a success, and we think that the sen 
timent of every visitor will agree with us. We are opposed 
to the " separate coach," but we must confess that we favored 
the separate Negro Building at this Centennial, as the exhib 
its, of which we are so proud, would have lost their identity 
in the white buildings unless labeled " negro," and this would 
have been objectionable. There have been so many great 
and good deeds performed by the negro that never will see 
the light of history, only as recorded in a general way in con 
nection with the whites, that the negroes are beginning to 
write their own histories, so that their deeds and accomplish 
ments may not be lost to the future generations of their race. 
For instance : I have mentioned several artists in this book 
musicians whose compositions have been published by some 
of the leading music houses in America. Their songs 
were sung and played by thousands, and yet but few knew 
that the composers were negro artists. This generation is 
ignorant of the fact that such men ever lived. " Didst 
Thou ever Think of Me?" a song, was arranged for the 


guitar by Samuel L. White for the music house of George 
Willig, Philadelphia, Pa. ; "The Heart That Loves Fondest 
of Any " was arranged by S. L. White for the music house 
of W. Peters & Son, Cincinnati, O., and Peters & Webb, 
Louisville, Ky. ; "Falls City Polka Quadrille" was com 
posed by George Hamlet for the music houses of Peters & 
Webb, Louisville, Ky., W. C. Peters & Son, Cincinnati, O., 
and Balmer & Weber, St. Louis, Mo. These negroes com 
posed for these houses fifty years ago, but their race 
was concealed, only their names being given, for it would 
have been unpopular at that day and time to present sheet 
music composed by negroes to the public. If the artist be a 
German, a Frenchman, an Italian, or an American, his 
nationality appears on every sheet ; hence our views, that 
whatever the negro does commendable, preserve his identity, 
so that future generations may know that you had been 
along these lines. 

The U. B. F. and S. M. T. Headquarters of Tennessee 
were neatly fitted up for the reception of its visitors from the 
interior and sister States. At night a meeting was called at 
the U. B. F. Hall by Grand Master P. F. Hill and National 
Grand Princess Mrs. Georgia A. Henderson. Introductions 
and speeches were made by local members and visitors. A 
resolution was passed as follows : 

WHEREAS, The call of the National Grand Master, Willis 
N. Brent, has not been issued for the meeting of the Na 
tional Grand Lodge ; and 

WHEREAS, The reduction in railroad fares to the Centen 
nial from all quarters of the United States to this point is 
reduced to such low rates, and ample time will be given for 
the transaction of National Grand Lodge business, also time 
to witness the display of our people at the Centennial Expo 
sition after the business of the National Grand Lodge is 
completed; and 


WHEREAS, The reduction of railroad fares will save to our 
Order and delegates several thousands of dollars should the 
meeting be held at Nashville (which money we really need) ; 

WHEREAS, The time is so very short for us to make suita 
ble arrangements or rates in other directions of the country 
with the various railroad agents ; and 

WHEREAS, We believe it would be advisable to petition 
the National Grand Master, Willis N. Brent, to consider this 
matter, and ask that as he has so long delayed the final call 
to the lodges and temples that he, by the advice of the Ex 
ecutive Committee, change the place of meeting from Wash 
ington, D. C. , to Nashville, Tenn., as we deem it an emer 
gent case for their consideration and the financial interest of 
the Order; and 

WHEREAS, It is the opinion of the Grand Master of Ten 
nessee, P. F. Hill, the National Grand Princess, and the 
Princesses, Masters, also members of the Order in Nashville, 
that they can accommodate the National Grand Lodge meet 
ing as cheaply and comfortably as can be afforded in Wash 
ington, or as they have been provided for on former occa 

Resolved, That these resolutions be forwarded to our Most 
Worthy National Grand Master, Willis N. Brent, immedi 
ately ; and further 

Resolved, That they be drafted by Bros. J. Thomas Tur 
ner, Grand Secretary of Tennessee, and E. W. Marshall, 
Grand Secretary of Kentucky. 

In this connection the Grand Master, Willis N. Brent, 
issued the following circular, changing place and date, and 
designating Nashville, Tenn., as the place of meeting of the 
Grand Lodge : 

Change of Place and Date Extensive correspondence with 
members of the Order in Washington, and well informed 
members elsewhere; delay in determining what was best 
for the general interest of the Order, especially the great ex- 


pense for the journey and high price of living there have 
all concurred in making the change of place and date of 
meeting necessary. 

Reduced rates on all railroads to Nashville are provided, 
and we are assured of a hearty welcome and magnificent en 
tertainment, with all the advantages of the Centennial Expo 
sition when we get there. 

You are hereby officially notified that the ninth session of 
the National Grand Lodge and fourth of National Grand 
Temple, will be held in the city of Nashville, State of Ten 
nessee, beginning at 10 o clock A. M., Tuesday, August 24, 
1897, and continuing in session five days. 

Yours in J., M., andT., 


National Grand Master. 


This body of educators held their twentieth anniversary 
July ist and 2d, at the Central High School, Ninth and 
Magazine, Louisville, Ky., and night sessions were held at 
Quinn Chapel, A. M. E. Church. The meetings were pre 
sided over by President C. H. Parrish. Prof. J. M. Max 
well delivered the welcome address, and Prof. C. C. Monroe, 
of Owensboro, made a fitting response. 

The following papers were read: " Tendency of Educa 
tional System," by Prof. J. B. Winrow, of Bowling Green, 
Ky. ; "Elementary Science," by Prof. W. C. Taylor, of Lex 
ington; "Self Culture," by Rev. C. L. Puree; "Trustee 
System and Condition of our Schools," by Mrs. L. V. Sneed. 

At the night session Rev. Dr. Tyree invoked the divine 
blessing. The Treble Clef Club entertained with a chorus. 
President Parrish read his annual address, reviewing the 
history of the association, and Prof. J. H. Jackson "How 
to Create Educational Enthusiasm." 


At the close a reception was giveji by the teachers of 
Louisville to the visiting members. 

We listened attentively to the reading of the papers and 
the discussions which followed. They were of the highest 
character, and carried the listener to the highest realm of 
thought. Twenty years of application in this association 
has truly developed many able writers and thinkers among 
our teachers, of whom the friends of education and the State 
officers who are training and supporting this educational 
work should feel complimented. As an ex-teacher of the 
"old school," my mind reverted back to fifty years ago, 
when, in this city, four men R. M. Lane, Rev. Henry 
Adams, Rev. Peter Booth, and myself were striving, in a 
modest way, to teach the elementary branches of an English 
education to those of the race who might be allowed to ma 
triculate. The three first mentioned pioneers have passed 
away, and I am left, by the providence of God, to witness 
some of the wishes and desires of our hearts that our peo 
ple might be saved educationally, and at the same time be 
the recipients and participants in the redemption of others 
in this great work. 

Fifty years ago, in the four private schools taught by these 
pioneers, the pupils scarcely numbered two hundred, but at 
the expiration of a half century we have thousands in at 
tendance in the schools of this city, over one hundred teach 
ers, nine buildings, and a high school, turning out from 
eighteen to twenty graduates annually. We also have a State 
Normal School, county and district schools all over the 
State, denominational colleges and academies, and industrial 
schools for boys and girls. Teachers salaries average from 
$40 to $125 per month. " Praise God from whom all bless 
ings flow." 



To the readers of my semi-centennial history : 

In this narrative I have not endeavored to make any 
literary display, but to relate only such facts as actually came 
under my notice, and such as I participated in during the 
dark days of slavery and of those since the dawn of free 
dom and the enfranchisement of our race. The history of 
our race is just being given to the rising generation by their 
own "kith and kin." Heretofore, sufferings of the most 
excruciating nature have been concealed; deeds of Christian 
love and forbearance and heroic valor have been a sealed 
book to our students. Colored writers and historians are now 
collecting evidence from the care-worn veterans of our race 
who survive the vicissitudes of an half century. Our white 
historians of to-day are yet collecting the past deeds of their 
fathers of Revolutionary fame ; their lineage is sought after 
that their descendants may know from whose loins they 
sprung. The story of the landing of the Pilgrims is repeated 
every day in some school-room ; the crossing of the Delaware 
is a story that never grows old; and the cruelty of the 
Anderson Military Prison in the South is rehearsed at the 
camp-fires. Shall we do less ? Is this repetition the open 
ing of old sores, and causing wounds to bleed afresh ? No ; 
we think not ; we want our own history ; we wish to tell it 
in our own way, and put our children in possession of deeds 
that would never be known concerning their forefathers 
through the school histories of our day. In this history we 
give you the dark cloud with its silver lining the past and 
the present. Compare them and be wise. 

With this apology, I close the fifty years history of my 
public life. Yours, fraternally, 






Biographical 1 1-14 

Charter obtained 9 

Founders of the Order 7 

Name 1 1 

Organization 7 


Articles of Agreement 16 

Convention for the formation of a State Grand Lodge .... 1517 

Labor after organization of State Grand Lodge 17-18 

Quotations from Fourth Annual Report 18-20 


First National Convention U. B. F. assembles in Louis 
ville, Ky., July 20, 1875 20-23 


The Missouri Convention of 1876, pursuant to call of the 

National Convention of 1875 2 3~ 2 9 


Quotations from Proceedings of Third Annual Session at 

Lexington, Ky 31 

Resolutions sustaining the recommendation of the Grand 

Lodge of Kentucky 30 


CHAPTER V Continued. PAGH . 

First State Grand Lodge in Kentucky after organization of 

National Grand Lodge in St. Louis, Mo 36 

Quotations from Proceedings of Fifth Grand Session of 

Kentucky 3 2 ~36 


National Grand Master s First Report 36-46 


Second Biennial Session of the National Grand Lodge. . . . 48-56 


First Convention of the Temples of the U. B. F 57-5$ 

Second National Convention of the Sisters, July 17, 1880, 

at Indianapolis 60 

Special Committee meeting in Louisville for instruction in 

the Temple Work 59-6o 

Temple Work $6-57 


Insurance or Mutual Aid Department 60-62 


Organization of Grand and Subordinate Camps, July 5, 1878. 62-65 


Grand Masters of Kentucky 65-67 

Grand Masters of other States, etc 68-73 


History of Past Masters Council, Royal Household, and 

Juvenile Department 79 

Sketches of National Grand Masters 73~79 


Biennial Session of National Grand Lodge held at Little 

Rock, Ark., July 23, 1891 80-81 

National Knight Commanders 83 

Reception of William Lloyd Garrison Camp, at Chicago, 

111., July, 1891 81-82 

Visits of Valiant Knights ; 84-86 



Closing remarks 114 

Good and Evil tendencies of Societies 112-113 

Grand Camp Session at Little Rock, Ark., July 23, 1894. .100-101 

Grand Lodge of Kentucky 101-103 

Grand Lodges organized 1 10 

History of the Temples at Chicago, 111 108-109 

Joint Lodge and Temple U. B. F 104-105 

List of Camps no-ill 

National Grand Camp Officers 1 1 i-i 12 

National Grand Officers elected at the Biennial and Tri 
ennial Sessions 109-1 10 

Orphan and Dependent Home 103-104 

Reminiscences Alabama 93~94 

Arkansas 9-9i 

Illinois 94 

Indiana 95~96 

Louisiana 9 l ~93 

Ohio 96-99 

Tennessee 99-100 

Texas 86-90 

Widows and Orphans Home Further acquisition of 

property 105-107 





Advisory School Board (colored) 2 4~ 2 5 

Artists, colored, in music and photography 39-4 1 

Bloody Monday, August, 1855, murdering and burning of the 

houses of Irish citizens 37~38 


Baptist Churches 17-19 

Center Street Church 14-16 

Christian Church 20 

Colored Roman Catholic Church 22 

Fourth Street Methodist 

Sale of property and split in the congregation 8-1 1 

Stirring scenes with the congregation and its pastor. . . 5-8 

Jackson Street Church 17 

Leading Churches and Pastors 22-23 

Presbyterian Church 19-20 

Quinn Chapel 

History of the mother A. M. E. Church 1 1-14 

St. Mark s Colored Mission Episcopal Church 20-22 

Concluding remarks 84 

Departed for Kansas 50 

Douglass, Hon. Frederick, visits Louisville 64-65 



Education 69-70 

Educational Convention of Ministers composed of the Kentucky 

and West Kentucky Conferences 78 

Efficacy of prayer a minister prayed out of a chain-gang while 

on the road to the South 36-37 

Fifteenth Amendment and its jubilee celebration 62-64 

Fort Leavenworth, visit to 5~5 2 

Freedmen s Bank 55 

Freemasonry 4 2 ~45 

Free-soil and Squatter Sovereignty 4i~4 2 

Free-soil Convention at Pittsburg, Penn., in 1852, a visit to ... 32-34 

Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 34~36 

Gospel Ode 77 

Home Guards, cruelties of the 49~5O 

Introductory 3-5 

Mail Agent on the Knoxville Branch L. & N., appointed to the 

position 53-55 

Massachusetts calling for colored soldiers 47~49 

Musical Societies, etc. 

Church Choirs 60 

First Musical Festival in Louisville 57 

Madame Selika and S. W. Williams 60-61 

Second Musical Festival in Louisville 57~6o 

The Mozart Society 55~56 

The Treble Clef Musical Club 74 

Negro Day at the Centennial, Nashville, Tenn., June 5, 1897. . 78-82 

Newspaper enterprises 65-66 

Odd Fellowship 45~46 

Patrolling, system of, as it was called by policemen 36 

Positions of honor held by the writer 74~76 

Prominent Louisville men of the forties and fifties, and their 

business 2 5~3 

Public Institutions among the colored citizens of Louisville . . . 7 2 ~74 

Return to Louisville 5 2 

Scenes of 1861 in Louisville, Ky 46-47 

Schools of the forties and fifties 38 



Slave auction block, as seen by the writer for the first time. ... 39 

Society among the Free Colored People 30-32 

Speakers of note who have addressed the colored citizens of 

Louisville 76 

State Teachers Association 82-83 

Sunday School picnics in ante-bellum days 66-68 

Sunday School Unions 24 

Sunday School Work 2 3~ 2 4 

United States Circuit Court 53 

Young Men s Christian Association 71 



Hon. W. H. Gibson, P. N. G. M. : 

I am proud to know that you have undertaken so great 
and noble a work for the Order, as it fills a long and wanted 
anticipation, and I know that you are the suitable one for 
the occasion. I can safely say that your book will not be 
burdensome on your hands, for it will be desired in the 
homes of every U. B. F. and S. M. T. 

Yours truly, 


Knight Recorder, Belle Camp. 


We feel safe in recommending the History of the United 
Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten to 
the U. B. F. and S. M. T. and the general public. It is 
written by W. H. Gibson, Sr., the first State and National 
Grand Master of the Order. The history will consist of 
about 200 pages. W. A. GAINS, Grand Master. 

E. W. MARSHALL, Grand Sec y. 


Wm. H. Gibson : 

DEAR SIR AND BROTHER I assure you that I appreciate 
your request very highly, and truly hope that the undertak 
ing will be a success. J. W. HILLMAN, 

Past Grand Treasurer, 



W. H. Gibson: 

DEAR SIR AND BROTHER Your History is a long-felt 

need, and I am sure that not only the members, but the 

world, will be proud of it. The fact that it comes from your 

brain and pen will give it double interest. With best wishes, 

I am, in J., M., T., 

National Grand Secretary National Grand Temple. 


W. H. Gibson : 

MY VERY DEAR SIR AND BROTHER I see, through the 
Gazette, that you are preparing an historical work of the 
Order of United Brothers of Friendship. When the work is 
out of press I will be more than glad to have you send me a 
copy. Anything written by you on that subject must neces 
sarily be good, and I am interested in all such publications. 
I am yours, truly, 



W. H. Gibson, P. N. G. M. : 

DEAR SIR AND BROTHER Yours received, and can assure 
you that I shall be delighted to handle your book in this 
city. I feel that our interest is mutual in this one matter, 
the History of our Order. Yours in J., M., T., 

Past Grand Master. 


Bro. W. H. Gibson : 

DEAR SIR I am in receipt of your letter, and just as 
soon as your book is out I will be able to put before the peo 
ple of Lexington about two dozen copies. I have solicited 
nearly that number already. Respectfully, 

Grand Treasurer. 



DEAR BROTHER Yours received. I have so often heard 
of you, also your History of our Order, which I think is the 
very thing for the good of the Order in this and other States, 
for it is little known in my State. I wish you great success 
in your undertaking. 

I am yours, respectfully, in J., M., T. , 



DEAR SIR AND BROTHER Yours received. I think the 
History of the Order of U. B. F. and S. M. T. is a good 
thing, and the very book that we have desired for years. I 
shall take one myself, and advise all of our worthy members 
to do the same. Yours in J., M., T., 

N. D. D. G. M. 


W. H. Gibson, Esq. : 

DEAR SIR I understand that you are about to publish a 
History of the United Brothers of Friendship. That such a 
work is necessary no one will dare dispute, and I had con 
templated such a work ; in fact, had begun it. I have posi 
tively done more for the Order, in a general way, than any 
five men within the past ten years. I suppose you will not 
forget to mention these things, because they are a part of 
the history. I am yours in J., M., T. , 



Father W. H. Gibson : 

DEAR SIR AND BROTHER Yours received. I hope you 
will have a success with your book and have them out so 
that we can have some on exhibition at the Centennial. Let 
me hear from you at your earliest convenience. 
Respectfully yours, 

P. F. HILL, Grand Master. 


Dear Bro. Gibson : 

Yours received. I think it grand and noble in you to 
write the History of the Order. May success attend you. 


N. G. P. S. M. T. 


W. H. Gibson : 

DEAR SIR AND BROTHER Yours received. When your 
History of the Order is out, please send copies to Mount 
Hope Temple No. i, S. M. T. 

Your sister in the Order, 


Wm. H. Gibson : 

DEAR SIR AND BROTHER Received your circular. Will 
be glad to receive the History when it is ready. 



Dear Father Gibson : 

I like your idea of handing down to those who come after 
us something of our labor. I will gladly do what I can to 
place the work in the hands of all members of our Order. 


Grand Master. 

W. H. Gibson: 

DEAR SIR AND BROTHER Glad that you are still in the 
work of our grand and noble Order. I think you are the 
one, and the only one, to write up the History of our Order. 
My best wishes for your success in the work. 


N. v. P. 





This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

on the date to which renewed. 
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 

OCT 2 19b7 2o 
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NOV 9 1978 

i>r RE 

c. CIR. DEC 3 1978 



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DEC 9197J 

LD 21A-60m-2, 67 

General Library 

University of California 



LD9-30m-12, 76(T25o5s8)41b